Uporabnik:Melaleuca alternifolia/peskovnik1: razlika med redakcijama

brez povzetka urejanja
 
=== Hormonski vzrok ===
Rastni hormon (GH) in [[inzulinu podobni rastni faktor 1]] ([[Igf1|IGF-1]]) sta dve snovi, za kateri je bilo spoznano, da vplivata na nastajanje rastnega hrustanca in rast kosti, ter posledično tudi na gigantizem. Vsi mehanizmi njunega delovanja še niso popolnoma razumljeni.<ref name=":0" /><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Shim|first=Kye Shik|date=March 2015|title=Pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion|journal=Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism|volume=20|issue=1|pages=8–12|doi=10.6065/apem.2015.20.1.8|issn=2287-1012|pmc=4397276|pmid=25883921}}</ref> Tako za GH kot tudi IGF je bilo pokazano, da se vključujeta v večino faz rasti: embrionalno, prenatalno in postnatalno.<ref name=":3">{{Cite journal|last=Laron|first=Z|date=October 2001|title=Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1): a growth hormone|journal=Molecular Pathology|volume=54|issue=5|pages=311–316|issn=1366-8714|pmc=1187088|pmid=11577173|doi=10.1136/mp.54.5.311}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite journal|last1=Lupu|first1=Floria|last2=Terwilliger|first2=Joseph D.|last3=Lee|first3=Kaechoong|last4=Segre|first4=Gino V.|last5=Efstratiadis|first5=Argiris|title=Roles of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in mouse postnatal growth|journal=Developmental Biology|volume=229|issue=1|pages=141–162|doi=10.1006/dbio.2000.9975|pmid=11133160|year=2001}}</ref> Rastni hormon je prekurzor IGF-1, vsaka od dveh snovi pa ima svojo neodvisno vlogo v hormonalnih poteh. Vseeno se zdi, da je učinek obeh snovi na rast skupen.<ref name=":4" />
 
Rastni hormon je prekurzor IGF-1, vsaka od dveh snovi pa ima svojo neodvisno vlogo v hormonalnih poteh. Vseeno se zdi, da je učinek obeh snovi na rast skupen.<ref name=":4" />
 
=== Diagnostično testiranje ===
Pri diagnostičnem testiranju gigantizma en sam vzorec z normalnimi vrednostmi rastnega hormona ni dovolj za potrditev odsotnosti gigantizma, ker je sekrecija rastnega hormona ob različnih delih dneva lahko raznolika. Po drugi strani je naključen vzorec krvi z zvišano ravnjo rastnega hormona dovoljšen pokazatelj gigantizma in s tem povezane hipersekrecije rastnega hormona.<ref name=":6">De Mais, Daniel. ASCP Quick Compendium of Clinical Pathology, 2nd Ed. ASCP Press, Chicago, 2009.</ref> Za dokazovanje hipersekrecije rastnega hormona je dober pokazatelj tudi inzulinu podobni rastni faktor 1 (IGF-1), ki se izloča enakomerno in bo njegova raven pri bolnikih z gigantizmov vselej zvišana. Normalna vrednost IGF-1 kaže, da ni hipersekrecije rastnega hormona.<ref name=":6" />
 
Za dokazovanje hipersekrecije rastnega hormona je dober pokazatelj tudi inzulinu podobni rastni faktor 1 (IGF-1), ki se izloča enakomerno in bo njegova raven pri bolnikih z gigantizmov vselej zvišana. Normalna vrednost IGF-1 kaže, da ni hipersekrecije rastnega hormona.<ref name=":6" />
 
== Genetika ==
[[Pegvisomant]] je eno od zdravil, ki se uporablja za zdravljenje gigantizma. Aplikacija pegvisomanta vodi v zmanjševanje ravni IGF-1, po uporabi se pogosto nekoliko umiri tudi rast.<ref name=":2"/> Pegvisomant naj bi bil odlična alternativa nekaterim drugim načinom zdravljenja, ki vključujejo analoge [[Somatostatin|somatostatina]], še posebej značilne za zdravljenje akromegalije, če se ob tem uporablja tudi [[radioterapija]].<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Rix|first1=M.|last2=Laurberg|first2=P.|last3=Hoejberg|first3=A. S.|last4=Brock-Jacobsen|first4=B.|date=2005-08-01|title=Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl|journal=European Journal of Endocrinology|language=en|volume=153|issue=2|pages=195–201|doi=10.1530/eje.1.01956|issn=0804-4643|pmid=16061823|doi-access=free}}</ref> Pri aplikaciji pegvisomanta je nujno, da so vnesene primerne količine, ki ne škodijo procesu rasti. V ta namen se pogosto poslužujejo [[Titracija|titracije]] zdravila.<ref name=":2" />
 
==TerminologyTerminologija==
[[File:André the Giant in the late '80s.jpg|thumb|upright|[[André the Giant]], a [[wrestler]] and actor in ''[[The Princess Bride (film)|The Princess Bride]]''.]]Izraz gigantizem se navadno pripisuje ljudem, katerih telesna višina izrazito presega povprečne vrednosti (gledano glede na spol, starost in etničnost). Redkeje se termin uporablja za ljudi, ki so visoki ali nekoliko presegajo povprečje, njihova telesna višina pa je najverjetneje zdrava posledica normalne [[Genetika|genetike]] in ustrezne prehrane. Gigantizem najpogosteje povzroča tumor hipofiznega tkiva, ki vodi v hipersekrecijo rastnega hormona. Posledica bolezenskega stanja so rast rok, obraza in nog.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.question.com/link/gigantis.html |title=Gigantism |publisher=Question.com |access-date=2012-03-14 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120313201250/http://www.question.com/link/gigantis.html |archive-date=2012-03-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref> V nekaterih primerih je stanje dedno; prenese se z mutiranim genom.<ref>{{Navedi novice|title=In a Giant’s Story, a New Chapter Writ by His DNA|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/06/health/06giant.html|newspaper=The New York Times|date=2011-01-05|accessdate=2021-06-19|issn=0362-4331|language=en-US|first=Gina|last=Kolata}}</ref>
[[File:Seeman Cajanus.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Daniel Cajanus]] (1704–1749), a [[Finland|Finnish]] giant.]]
[[File:André the Giant in the late '80s.jpg|thumb|upright|[[André the Giant]], a [[wrestler]] and actor in ''[[The Princess Bride (film)|The Princess Bride]]''.]][[File:Anna Swan with her parents.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Giantess [[Anna Swan]] with her parents.]]
The term is typically applied to those whose height is not just in the upper 1% of the population but several [[standard deviation]]s above mean for persons of the same sex, age, and ethnic ancestry. The term is seldom applied to those who are simply "tall" or "above average" whose heights appear to be the healthy result of normal [[genetics]] and nutrition. Gigantism is usually caused by a [[Pituitary adenoma|tumor on the pituitary gland]] of the brain. It causes growth of the hands, face, and feet.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.question.com/link/gigantis.html |title=Gigantism |publisher=Question.com |access-date=2012-03-14 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120313201250/http://www.question.com/link/gigantis.html |archive-date=2012-03-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref>{{better source needed|date=July 2015}} In some cases the condition can be passed on genetically through a mutated gene.<ref>[https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/06/health/06giant.html In a Giant’s Story, a New Chapter Writ by His DNA - By Gina Kolata. The New York Times, January 5, 2011]</ref>
 
Other names somewhat obsolete for this pathology are hypersoma (Greek: ''hyper'' over the normal level; ''soma'' body) and somatomegaly (Greek; ''soma'' body, [[Genitive case|genitive]] ''somatos'' of the body; ''megas'', gen. ''megalou'' great). In the past, while many of them were social outcasts because of their height, some (usually unintentionally) found employment in [[Frederick William I of Prussia|Friedrich Wilhelm I]]'s famous [[Potsdam Giants]] regiment.
 
Many of those who have been identified with gigantism have suffered from multiple health problems involving the [[circulatory system|circulatory]] or [[skeletal system]], as the strain of maintaining a large, heavy body places abnormal demands on both the [[bone]]s and the [[heart]].
 
== SocietyDružba andin culturekultura ==
Iz zgodovinskih poročil je znano precejšnje število obolelih z gigantizmom, pri čemer so bila nekatera ljudstva in plemena večja od preostalih. Velikani Krete se pojavljajo v mnogih zgodovinskih virih; med bolj znanimi sta [[Titan (velikan)|Titan]], grški mitološki velikan, in [[Gigantus]], po katerem je gigantizem dobil ime (izpeljanka imena je tudi angleški izraz za velikane, ''giants''). Po velikanih je znan otok [[Rodos]], na katerem naj bi živeli številni velikani (primer je ogromni kip grškega boga sonca, [[Helij (mitologija)|Helija]], [[Rodoški kolos]]). Goljat, velikan, ki ga omenja [[Sveto pismo]], je bil filistejski bojevnik, ki ga je v spopadu med vojno Izraelcev in Filistejcev ubil deček [[David (kralj)|David]]. Za člana Goljatove družine je znano, da naj bi imel šest prstov na vsaki nogi in roki.<ref>Story of Goliath in {{Bibleref2|1 Samuel|17|9}}{{snd}} 6 fingers in {{Bibleverse|1|Chronicles|20:6|HE}} cf. {{Bibleref2|2 Samuel|21:20-22|9}}</ref>
{{main|Giant (mythology)}}
Reports of gigantism exist throughout history, with some nations and tribes taller than others. The giants of Crete are listed in various historic sources, beginning with [[Helios|Titan]], a Greek mythological giant, and including Gigantus, after whom giants and gigantism are named. [[Rhodes]] is another island where giants were said to have lived, with the [[Colossus of Rhodes]], a giant statue of a giant patron god [[Helios]]. [[Goliath]], a giant mentioned in the [[Bible]], was a [[Philistine]] warrior who was killed by [[David]] in the war between the Israelites and the Philistines. A member of Goliath's family is also described as having six digits on each hand and each foot.<ref>Story of Goliath in {{Bibleref2|1 Samuel|17|9}}{{snd}} 6 fingers in {{Bibleverse|1|Chronicles|20:6|HE}} cf. {{Bibleref2|2 Samuel|21:20-22|9}}</ref>
 
== Glej tudi ==