Cardano (kriptovalutna platforma): razlika med redakcijama

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{{Infopolje Kriptovaluta|currency_name=Cardano|block_explorer={{URL|https://explorer.cardano.org}}|programming_languages=[[Haskell (programski jezik)|Haskell]]|operating_system=|author=[[Charles Hoskinson]]|developer=|source_model=|license=[[Apache License]]|website={{URL|https://www.cardano.org|cardano.org}}|hash_function=|latest_release_date=14. oktober 2020{{Start date and age|df=yes|2020|10|14|p=y}}<ref>{{Cite web |title=Releases - input-output-hk/cardano-node |url=https://github.com/input-output-hk/cardano-node/releases/tag/1.21.2 |access-date=28. oktobra 2020 |via=[[GitHub]]}}</ref>|circulating_supply=|supply_limit=45,000,000,000<ref name="The Future of Finance">{{Cite book |last=Arslanian |first=Henri |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=u9KiDwAAQBAJ&q=cardano+ada&pg=PA131 |title=The Future of Finance: The Impact of FinTech, AI, and Crypto on Financial Services |last2=Fischer |first2=Fabrice |date=15. septembra 2019|publisher=Springer |isbn=978-3-030-14533-0 |language=en}}</ref>|exchange_rate=|market_cap=|issuance=|timestamping=[[dokaz o vložku]]|block_time=|block_reward=|forked_from=|latest_release_version=1.21.2|image_1=[[File:Cardano Logo.jpg|Cardano platform logo|124px]]|subunit_ratio_2=|image_2=[[File:Coin-ada-big.svg|Ada cryptocurrency logo|60px]]|image_title_1=Cardano platform logo|image_width_1=|image_title_2=Ada cryptocurrency logo|image_width_2=|subunit_ratio_1={{frac|1000000}}|subunit_name_1=Lovelace<ref name="lovelace unit">{{Cite web |title=Cardano Glossary |url=https://docs.cardano.org/en/latest/explore-cardano/glossary.html?highlight=lovelaces |access-date=23. Octoberoktober 2020}}</ref>|subunit_name_2=|status=dejavna|precision=|symbol=₳|ticker_symbol=ADA|coin_definition=|implementations=Cardano Node|initial_release_version=1.0.1|initial_release_date=27. september 2017<ref>{{Cite web |title=Releases - input-output-hk/cardano-sl |url=https://github.com/input-output-hk/cardano-sl/releases/tag/v1.0.1 |access-date=28. oktobra 2020 |via=[[GitHub]]}}</ref>|code_repository=|footnotes={{Notelist|group=infobox}}}}'''Cardano''' je [[Kriptovaluta|kriptovalutno]] omrežje in odprtokodni projekt, katerega namen je upravljati [[Blockchain|javno]] platformo [[Blockchain|veriženja blokov]] za [[pametne pogodbe]].<ref name="CardanoGeneral">{{Navedi splet|date=24. Februaryfebruar 2018|title=Cardano: a rising cryptocurrency|url=https://mashable.com/2018/02/24/cardano-hoskinson-interview/?europe=true#M7WXfcgYIkq2|accessdate=25. Decemberdecembra 2018|website=[[Mashable]]|quote=Cardano claims it will solve most of the issues that plague well-established cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum}}</ref> Cardanova kriptovaluta se imenuje Ada.<ref>{{Navedi novice|date=26. Junejunij 2020|title=Die Grundlagen der Cardano-Kryptowährung|language=de|work=hamburg-magazin.de|url=https://www.hamburg-magazin.de/artikel/die-grundlagen-der-cardano-kryptow%C3%A4hrung|accessdate=2. Julyjulij 2020}}</ref> Razvoj projekta nadzira in upravlja fundacija Cardano s sedežem v [[Zug|Zugu]] v [[Švica|Švici]].<ref name="Privacy-regulation">{{Navedi splet|date=20. Decemberdecember 2017|title=Bitcoin's Smaller Cousins|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-20/baby-altcoins-leading-crypto-rally-as-bitcoin-goes-mainstream|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180626223516/https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-20/baby-altcoins-leading-crypto-rally-as-bitcoin-goes-mainstream|archivedate=26. Junejunij 2018|accessdate=25. Decemberdecembra 2018|website=[[Bloomberg L.P.]]|quote=Cardano, backed by the Zug, Switzerland-based Cardano Foundation, is a decentralized public blockchain that aims to protect user privacy, while also allowing for regulation}}</ref> <ref name="Luzerner_Zeitung">{{Navedi splet|date=20. Februaryfebruar 2018|title=ZUG: Ex-Tezos-Mann geht zu Cardano|url=https://www.luzernerzeitung.ch/wirtschaft/zug-ex-tezos-mann-geht-zu-cardano-ld.84805|accessdate=7. Julyjulija 2020|website=luzernerzeitung.ch|publisher=Luzerner Zeitung|language=de}}</ref>
 
== Zgodovina ==
Platformo so začeli razvijati v letu 2015 in jo je javnosti leta 2017 predstavil [[Charles Hoskinson]], ki je soustanovitelj platform [[Ethereum]] in [[BitShares]].<ref>{{Navedi splet|title=Ethereum Cofounder Says Blockchain Presents 'Governance Crisis'|url=https://fortune.com/2019/04/08/ethereum-cofounder-governance-charles-hoskinson/|accessdate=1. aprila 2020-04-01|website=Fortune|language=en}}</ref> <ref name="EthereumCo-founder">{{Navedi splet|date=6. Octoberoktober 2017|title=ICOs explained|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/05/how-icos-setting-the-vc-world-ablaze-work.html|accessdate=25. Decemberdecembra 2018|website=[[CNBC]]|quote="ethereum co-founder Charles Hoskinson says it has become increasingly more challenging to regulate this new asset class" and "ICO market could crash"}}</ref> <ref name="Forbes_Story">{{Navedi novice|last=Au-Yeung|first=Angel|date=7. Februaryfebruar 2018|title=A Fight Over Ethereum Led A Cofounder To Even Greater Crypto Wealth|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/angelauyeung/2018/02/07/charles-hoskinson-ethereum-iohk-blockchain-crypto-cryptocurrency/|accessdate=12. Julyjulija 2020|work=Forbes Magazine|quote=IOHK's key project: Cardano, a public blockchain and smart-contract platform which hosts the Ada cryptocurrency.}}</ref> Hoskinson pravi, da je Ethereum zapustil po sporu glede ohranjanja neprofitnosti platforme Ethereum. Po odhodu je skupaj s fundacijo Cardano in družbo Emurgo soustanovil podjetje IOHK za inženiring veriženja blokov, ki v sodelovanjus fundacijo Cardano in družbo Emurgo razvija platformo Cardano. Platforma je poimenovana po [[Gerolamo Cardano|Gerolamu Cardanu]], kriptovaluta pa po [[Ada Lovelace|Adi Lovelace]].<ref name="ada lovelace">{{Navedi splet|title=What is Ada?|url=https://cardano.org/what-is-ada/|accessdate=23. Octoberoktobra 2020}}</ref>
 
Valuta je prvič nastopila s tržno kapitalizacijo 600 milijonov dolarjev. Do konca leta 2017 je dosegla tržno kapitalizacijo 10 milijard dolarjev in leta 2018 na kratko vrednost 33 milijard dolarjev, preden se je vrednost zaradi splošnega zaostrovanja trga kriptovalut znižala na 10 milijard dolarjev. Po poročanju medijske hiše Mashable Cardano trdi, da premaguje obstoječe težave na kriptovalutnem trgu; predvsem to, da je [[Bitcoin]] prepočasen in neprilagodljiv ter da Ethereum ni varen ali razširljiv. Avtorji Cardano štejejo za kriptovaluto tretje generacije.<ref name="CardanoGeneral">{{Navedi splet|date=24. Februaryfebruar 2018|title=Cardano: a rising cryptocurrency|url=https://mashable.com/2018/02/24/cardano-hoskinson-interview/?europe=true#M7WXfcgYIkq2|accessdate=25. Decemberdecembra 2018|website=[[Mashable]]|quote=Cardano claims it will solve most of the issues that plague well-established cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum}}<cite class="citation web cs1" data-ve-ignore="true">[https://mashable.com/2018/02/24/cardano-hoskinson-interview/?europe=true#M7WXfcgYIkq2 "Cardano: a rising cryptocurrency"]. ''[[Mashable]]''. February 24,. februar 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">December 25,. decembra</span> 2018</span>. <q>Cardano claims it will solve most of the issues that plague well-established cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum</q></cite></ref>
 
Cardano razvija in oblikuje skupina akademikov in inženirjev.<ref name="FT">{{Navedi splet|date=27. Januaryjanuar 2018|title=Blockchain believers hold fast to a utopian vision|url=https://www.ft.com/content/a12d7476-bc6a-11e6-8b45-b8b81dd5d080|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20181219171156/https://www.ft.com/content/a12d7476-bc6a-11e6-8b45-b8b81dd5d080|archivedate=19. Decemberdecembra 2018|accessdate=25. Decemberdecembra 2018|website=[[Financial Times]]|quote="A mathematician, Mr Hoskinson believes blockchain has the potential to reduce society’s need for banks" and "working with a global group of academics" and "freely available online for other developers to use."}}</ref> <ref name="CardanoEU">{{Navedi splet|date=Julyjulij 2018|title=Cryptocurrencies and blockchain|url=https://www.europarl.europa.eu/cmsdata/150761/TAX3%20Study%20on%20cryptocurrencies%20and%20blockchain.pdf|accessdate=29. Octoberoktobra 2020|website=[[European Parliament]]|quote=What distinguishes Cardano from Ethereum, and from many other cryptocurrencies, is that it is (one of the first) blockchain projects to be developed and designed from a scientific philosophy by a team of leading academics and engineers}}</ref>
 
== Tehnični vidiki ==
Cardano uporablja tehnologijo [[Dokaz o vložku|dokaza o vložku]] [[Ouroboros (protokol)|Ouroboros]]. Bitcoin pa nasprotno uporablja sistem dokaza o delu; za določanje poštene verige blokov se uporabljata prvi vnos v verigo blokov in najdaljša veriga blokov (veriga blokov z največ računalniške moči). Cardano uporablja samo prvi vnos v verigo blokov, nato pa se poštena veriga dokazuje lokalno, ne da bi bila za to potrebna zaupanja vredna stranka.<ref>{{Navedi časopis|last=Badertscher|first=Christian|last2=Gaži|first2=Peter|last3=Kiayias|first3=Aggelos|last4=Russell|first4=Alexander|last5=Zikas|first5=Vassilis|date=2018-01-15|title=Ouroboros Genesis: Composable Proof-of-Stake Blockchains with Dynamic Availability|url=https://doi.org/10.1145/3243734.3243848|journal=Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security|series=CCS '18|location=Toronto, Canada|publisher=Association for Computing Machinery|pages=913–930|doi=10.1145/3243734.3243848|isbn=978-1-4503-5693-0}}</ref>
 
Kriptovaluta Ada deluje v platformi Cardano Ada na poravnalni ravni. Ta raven je podobna kot pri [[Bitcoin|bitcoinu]] in beleži transakcije. Druga raven je računska raven. Ta je podobna [[Ethereum|etru]] in omogoča izvajanje pametnih pogodb in aplikacij na platformi.<ref name="CardanoGeneral">{{Navedi splet|date=24. Februaryfebruar 2018|title=Cardano: a rising cryptocurrency|url=https://mashable.com/2018/02/24/cardano-hoskinson-interview/?europe=true#M7WXfcgYIkq2|accessdate=25. Decemberdecember 2018|website=[[Mashable]]|quote=Cardano claims it will solve most of the issues that plague well-established cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum}}<cite class="citation web cs1" data-ve-ignore="true">[https://mashable.com/2018/02/24/cardano-hoskinson-interview/?europe=true#M7WXfcgYIkq2 "Cardano: a rising cryptocurrency"]. ''[[Mashable]]''. February 24,. februar 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">December 25,. decembra</span> 2018</span>. <q>Cardano claims it will solve most of the issues that plague well-established cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum</q></cite></ref>
 
Cardano nima [[bel papir|bele knjige]] (predstavitvenega dokumenta). Namesto tega uporablja načale zasnove, nmenjena izboljšanju težav, s katerimi se srečujejo druge kriptovalute, kot so razširljivost, interoperabilnost in skladnost z zakonodajo.<ref name="Deloitte">{{Navedi splet|date=6. Maymaj 2020|title=The Blockchain Galaxy A comprehensive research on distributed ledger technologies|url=https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/it/Documents/financial-services/Deloitte_Blockchain_galaxy.pdf|accessdate=29. Octoberoktober 2020|website=[[Deloitte]]|quote=The distinctive feature of Cardano is its “research-first” approach to design.}}</ref> Financira se z [[Začetna ponudba kovancev|začetno ponudbo kovancev]].<ref name="CardanoEU">{{Navedi splet|date=Julyjulij 2018|title=Cryptocurrencies and blockchain|url=https://www.europarl.europa.eu/cmsdata/150761/TAX3%20Study%20on%20cryptocurrencies%20and%20blockchain.pdf|accessdate=29. Octoberoktober 2020|website=[[European Parliament]]|quote=What distinguishes Cardano from Ethereum, and from many other cryptocurrencies, is that it is (one of the first) blockchain projects to be developed and designed from a scientific philosophy by a team of leading academics and engineers}}<cite class="citation web cs1" data-ve-ignore="true">[https://www.europarl.europa.eu/cmsdata/150761/TAX3%20Study%20on%20cryptocurrencies%20and%20blockchain.pdf "Cryptocurrencies and blockchain"] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. ''[[Evropski parlament|European Parliament]]''. Julyjulij 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. RetrievedPridobljeno <span class="nowrap">October 29,. oktobra</span> 2020</span>. <q>What distinguishes Cardano from Ethereum, and from many other cryptocurrencies, is that it is (one of the first) blockchain projects to be developed and designed from a scientific philosophy by a team of leading academics and engineers</q></cite></ref>
 
Po mnenju Hoskinsona imajo verige blokov, kot je Cardano, bistveno manjše energetske zahteve kot tiste, ki so povezane z verigami, temelječimi na dokazu o delu, npr. bitcoin (glejte tudi [[Bitcoin|Bitcoin#Poraba energije]]).<ref name="CNBC">{{Navedi splet|date=9. Februaryfebruar 2021|title=Bitcoin's wild ride renews worries about its massive carbon footprint|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2021/02/05/bitcoin-btc-surge-renews-worries-about-its-massive-carbon-footprint.html|accessdate=13. Februaryfebruarja 2021|website=[[CNBC]]|quote=Bitcoin has a carbon footprint comparable to that of New Zealand}}</ref> <ref name="Independent">{{Navedi splet|date=12. Februaryfebruar 2021|title=How bad is Bitcoin for the environment really?|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/bitcoin-environment-mining-energy-cryptocurrency-b1800938.html?utm|accessdate=13. Februaryfebruarja 2021|website=[[The Independent]]|quote=requires nearly as much energy as the entire country of Argentina}}</ref>
 
== Razvoj ==
Cardanov jezik pametnih pogodb razvijalcem omogoča izvajanje preskusov na koncu programa, ne da bi morali zapustiti [[integrirano razvojno okolje]] ali uvesti svojo kodo.<ref name="SingleCodeBase">{{Navedi splet|date=11. Decemberdecember 2018|title=Say Hello to IOHK's New Cardano Blockchain Tools, Plutus and Marlowe|url=https://www.crowdfundinsider.com/2018/12/142217-say-hello-to-iohks-cardano-blockchain-tools-plutus-and-marlowe/|accessdate=18. Februaryfebruarja 2019|website=Crowdfund Insider|quote=Where programming Ethereum requires coding in two languages, Solidity for the on-chain code and Javascript for the off-chain parts, and other systems suffer a similar split, Plutus is the only system that provides an integrated language for both, based on Haskell}}</ref> <ref name="blockchainreporter">{{Navedi splet|date=12. Decemberdecember 2018|title=Marlowe: Implementing and Analysing Financial Contracts on Blockchain|url=https://blockchainreporter.net/iohk-launches-plutus-marlowe-for-smart-contract-creation-on-cardano/|accessdate=25. Octoberoktobra 2020|website=blockchainreporter.net|quote=Blockchain R&D company IOHK has announced Plutus and Marlowe software tools for smart contract creation on Cardano blockchain}}</ref>
 
Leta 2017 je podjetje IOHK [[Univerza v Edinburgu|Univerzi v Edinburghu]] pomagalo odpreti laboratorij za tehnologijo veriženja blokov.<ref>{{Navedi splet|title=Beyond Bitcoin - IOHK and University of Edinburgh establish Blockchain Technology Laboratory|url=https://www.ed.ac.uk/informatics/news-events/stories/2017/beyond-bitcoiniohk-and-university-of-edinburgh|accessdate=2020-03-31. marca 2020|website=The University of Edinburgh|language=en}}</ref> <ref>{{Navedi novice|title=IOHK and University of Edinburgh establish Blockchain Technology Laboratory|language=en|work=finextra.com|url=https://www.finextra.com/pressarticle/68177/iohk-and-university-of-edinburgh-establish-blockchain-technology-laboratory|accessdate=2020-10-25. oktobra 2020}}</ref> <ref>{{Navedi novice|title=The University of Edinburgh is launching a blockchain research lab with one of the cofounders of Ethereum|language=en|work=www.insider.com|url=https://www.insider.com/iohk-sponsors-blockchain-research-lab-at-the-university-of-edinburgh-tokyo-tech-2017-2|accessdate=2020-10-25. oktobra 2020}}</ref> Leta 2019 sta gruzijski minister za izobraževanje Mhail Batiašvili in Charles Hoskinson s Svobodno univerzo v Tbilisiju podpisala memorandum o soglasju za uuporabo Cardana in , da bi Cardano in na njem slonečo izpeljanko Atalo uporabila za izgradnjo sistema preverjanja poverilnic za Gruzijo.<ref>{{Navedi splet|title=Ministry of Education signs deal with Cardano Atala|url=https://forbes.ge/news/6500/Ministry-of-Education-signs-deal-with-Cardano-Atala-|accessdate=2020-03-27. marca 2020|website=Forbes Georgia}}</ref> Leta 2018 se je fundacija Cardano povezala z etiopsko vlado, da bi lahko svojo tehnologijo uporabila v različnih panogah po vsej državi.<ref>{{Navedi splet|last=Phillips|first=Ruari|date=2018-06-11|title=Ethiopian government-Cardano Technology team up on blockchain|url=https://www.busiweek.com/ethiopian-government-cardano-technology-team-up-on-blockchain/|accessdate=2020-03-27. marca 2020|website=East African Business Week|language=en-GB}}</ref> Podjetje IOHK, ki stoji za podjetjem Cardano, je Uniji v [[Univerza v Wyomingu|Wyomingu]] podarilo kriptovaluto Ada v vrednosti 500.000 dolarjev za podporo razvoju tehnologije veriženja blokov.<ref>{{Navedi novice|title=UW Receives $500,000 Gift in Ada Cryptocurrency from IOHK|language=en|work=www.uwyo.edu|url=http://www.uwyo.edu/uw/news/2020/02/uw-receives-500,000-gift-in-ada-cryptocurrency-from-iohk.html|accessdate=2020-10-25. oktobra 2020}}</ref> Proizvajalec obutve [[Novo ravnotežje|New Balance]] Athletics bo uporabil distribuirano [[Glavna knjiga|glavno knjigo]] veriženja blokov za sledenje pristnosti najnovejšega košarkarskega copata. Platforma bo zgrajena na podlagi blokovne verige Cardano.<ref>{{Navedi splet|date=2019-10-17|title=Sneakers meet the blockchain in New Balance shoe authenticity pilot|url=https://siliconangle.com/2019/10/17/sneakers-meet-blockchain-new-balance-pilot-shoe-authenticity/|accessdate=2020-03-28. marca 2020|website=SiliconANGLE|language=en-US}}</ref>
 
== Reference ==
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