Grand Tour (kolesarstvo)

Grand Tour (tudi Tritedenska dirka) je ime za tri najpomembnejše in najprestižnejše etapne dirke v kolesarstvu: Dirko po Franciji (francosko Tour de France), Dirko po Italiji (italijansko Giro d'Italia) in Dirko po Španiji (špansko Vuelta a España). Vse tri potekajo v podobni obliki in s trajanjem približno treh tednov. Imajo poseben status v pravilih UCI, prinašajo največ točk za lestvico[1] in so edine cestne etapne dirke dolge več kot štirinajst dni.[2]

Dirko po Italiji običajno poteka v maju, Dirka po Franciji v juliju in Dirka po Španiji v drugi polovici avgusta in začetku septembra. Dirka po Španiji je prvotno potekala spomladi, običajno konec aprila, nekajkrat v štiridesetih letih tudi junija, toda leta 1995 so jo v izogib prekrivanju z Dirko po Italiji pomaknili na konec sezone. Dirka po Franciji je najstarejša in najprestižnejša izmed treh dirk, prinaša tudi največ točk za kolesarsko lestvico[1] in velja za najbolj obiskano vsakoletno športno tekmovanje na svetu.[3] Dirka po Franciji, Dirka po Italiji in cesta dirka svetovnega prvenstva veljata za kolesarsko trojno krono. Najuspešnejši kolesar v zgodovini dirki Grand Tour je Eddy Merckx z enajstimi skupnimi zmagami, je tudi eden sedmih kolesarjev z zmagami na vseh treh dirkah. Osemnajstkrat se je zgodilo, da je isti kolesar zmagal na dveh od treh dirkah v sezoni, na vseh treh pa še nihče.

Skupni zmagovalciUredi

Zmagovalci po letihUredi

Leto Dirka po Italiji Dirka po Franciji Dirka po Španiji
1903 začetek leta 1909   Maurice Garin (1/1) začetek leta 1935
1904   Henri Cornet (1/1)
1905   Louis Trousselier (1/1)
1906   René Pottier (1/1)
1907   Lucien Petit-Breton (1/2)
1908   Lucien Petit-Breton (2/2)
1909   Luigi Ganna (1/1)   François Faber (1/1)
1910   Carlo Galetti (1/3)   Octave Lapize (1/1)
1911   Carlo Galetti (2/3)   Gustave Garrigou (1/1)
1912   Team Atala (Carlo Galetti (3/3),
Giovanni Micheletto (1/1) in Eberardo Pavesi (1/1))
  Odile Defraye (1/1)
1913   Carlo Oriani (1/1)   Philippe Thys (1/3)
1914   Alfonso Calzolari (1/1)   Philippe Thys (2/3)
1915 prva svetovna vojna
1916
1917
1918
1919   Costante Girardengo (1/2)   Firmin Lambot (1/2)
1920   Gaetano Belloni (1/1)   Philippe Thys (3/3)
1921   Giovanni Brunero (1/3)   Léon Scieur (1/1)
1922   Giovanni Brunero (2/3)   Firmin Lambot (2/2)
1923   Costante Girardengo (2/2)   Henri Pélissier (1/1)
1924   Giuseppe Enrici (1/1)   Ottavio Bottecchia (1/2)
1925   Alfredo Binda (1/5)   Ottavio Bottecchia (2/2)
1926   Giovanni Brunero (3/3)   Lucien Buysse (1/1)
1927   Alfredo Binda (2/5)   Nicolas Frantz (1/2)
1928   Alfredo Binda (3/5)   Nicolas Frantz (2/2)
1929   Alfredo Binda (4/5)   Maurice De Waele (1/1)
1930   Luigi Marchisio (1/1)   André Leducq (1/2)
1931   Francesco Camusso (1/1)   Antonin Magne (1/2)
1932   Antonio Pesenti (1/1)   André Leducq (2/2)
1933   Alfredo Binda (5/5)   Georges Speicher (1/1)
1934   Learco Guerra (1/1)   Antonin Magne (2/2)
1935   Vasco Bergamaschi (1/1)   Romain Maes (1/1)   Gustaaf Deloor (1/2)
1936   Gino Bartali (1/5)   Sylvère Maes (1/2)   Gustaaf Deloor (2/2)
1937   Gino Bartali (2/5)   Roger Lapébie (1/1) španska državljanska vojna
1938   Giovanni Valetti (1/2)   Gino Bartali (3/5)
1939   Giovanni Valetti (2/2)   Sylvère Maes (2/2)
1940   Fausto Coppi (1/7) druga svetovna vojna
1941 druga svetovna vojna   Julián Berrendero (1/2)
1942   Julián Berrendero (2/2)
1943 druga svetovna vojna
1944
1945   Delio Rodríguez (1/1)
1946   Gino Bartali (4/5)   Dalmacio Langarica (1/1)
1947   Fausto Coppi (2/7)   Jean Robic (1/1)   Edward Van Dijck (1/1)
1948   Fiorenzo Magni (1/3)   Gino Bartali (5/5)   Bernardo Ruiz (1/1)
1949   Fausto Coppi (3/7)   Fausto Coppi (4/7) ni potekala
1950   Hugo Koblet (1/2)   Ferdinand Kübler (1/1)   Emilio Rodríguez (1/1)
1951   Fiorenzo Magni (2/3)   Hugo Koblet (2/2) ni potekala
1952   Fausto Coppi (5/7)   Fausto Coppi (6/7)
1953   Fausto Coppi (7/7)   Louison Bobet (1/3)
1954   Carlo Clerici (1/1)   Louison Bobet (2/3)
1955   Fiorenzo Magni (3/3)   Louison Bobet (3/3)   Jean Dotto (1/1)
1956   Charly Gaul (1/3)   Roger Walkowiak (1/1)   Angelo Conterno (1/1)
1957   Gastone Nencini (1/2)   Jacques Anquetil (1/8)   Jesús Loroño (1/1)
1958   Ercole Baldini (1/1)   Charly Gaul (2/3)   Jean Stablinski (1/1)
1959   Charly Gaul (3/3)   Federico Bahamontes (1/1)   Antonio Suárez (1/1)
1960   Jacques Anquetil (2/8)   Gastone Nencini (2/2)   Frans De Mulder (1/1)
1961   Arnaldo Pambianco (1/1)   Jacques Anquetil (3/8)   Angelino Soler (1/1)
1962   Franco Balmamion (1/2)   Jacques Anquetil (4/8)   Rudi Altig (1/1)
1963   Franco Balmamion (2/2)   Jacques Anquetil (6/8)   Jacques Anquetil (5/8)
1964   Jacques Anquetil (7/8)   Jacques Anquetil (8/8)   Raymond Poulidor (1/1)
1965   Vittorio Adorni (1/1)   Felice Gimondi (1/5)   Rolf Wolfshohl (1/1)
1966   Gianni Motta (1/1)   Lucien Aimar (1/1)   Francisco Gabica (1/1)
1967   Felice Gimondi (2/5)   Roger Pingeon (1/2)   Jan Janssen (1/2)
1968   Eddy Merckx (1/11)   Jan Janssen (2/2)   Felice Gimondi (3/5)
1969   Felice Gimondi (4/5)   Eddy Merckx (2/11)   Roger Pingeon (2/2)
1970   Eddy Merckx (3/11)   Eddy Merckx (4/11)   Luis Ocaña (1/2)
1971   Gösta Pettersson (1/1)   Eddy Merckx (5/11)   Ferdinand Bracke (1/1)
1972   Eddy Merckx (6/11)   Eddy Merckx (7/11)   José Manuel Fuente (1/2)
1973   Eddy Merckx (9/11)   Luis Ocaña (2/2)   Eddy Merckx (8/11)
1974   Eddy Merckx (10/11)   Eddy Merckx (11/11)   José Manuel Fuente (2/2)
1975   Fausto Bertoglio (1/1)   Bernard Thévenet (1/2)   Agustín Tamames (1/1)
1976   Felice Gimondi (5/5)   Lucien Van Impe (1/1)   José Pesarrodona (1/1)
1977   Michel Pollentier (1/1)   Bernard Thévenet (2/2)   Freddy Maertens (1/1)
1978   Johan De Muynck (1/1)   Bernard Hinault (2/10)   Bernard Hinault (1/10)
1979   Giuseppe Saronni (1/2)   Bernard Hinault (3/10)   Joop Zoetemelk (1/2)
1980   Bernard Hinault (4/10)   Joop Zoetemelk (2/2)   Faustino Rupérez (1/1)
1981   Giovanni Battaglin (2/2)   Bernard Hinault (5/10)   Giovanni Battaglin (1/2)
1982   Bernard Hinault (6/10)   Bernard Hinault (7/10)   Marino Lejarreta (1/1)
1983   Giuseppe Saronni (2/2)   Laurent Fignon (1/3)   Bernard Hinault (8/10)
1984   Francesco Moser (1/1)   Laurent Fignon (2/3)   Éric Caritoux (1/1)
1985   Bernard Hinault (9/10)   Bernard Hinault (10/10)   Pedro Delgado (1/3)
1986   Roberto Visentini (1/1)   Greg LeMond (1/3)   Álvaro Pino (1/1)
1987   Stephen Roche (1/2)   Stephen Roche (2/2)   Luis Herrera (1/1)
1988   Andrew Hampsten (1/1)   Pedro Delgado (2/3)   Sean Kelly (1/1)
1989   Laurent Fignon (3/3)   Greg LeMond (2/3)   Pedro Delgado (3/3)
1990   Gianni Bugno (1/1)   Greg LeMond (3/3)   Marco Giovannetti (1/1)
1991   Franco Chioccioli (1/1)   Miguel Indurain (1/7)   Melcior Mauri (1/1)
1992   Miguel Indurain (2/7)   Miguel Indurain (3/7)   Tony Rominger (1/4)
1993   Miguel Indurain (4/7)   Miguel Indurain (5/7)   Tony Rominger (2/4)
1994   Jevgenij Berzin (1/1)   Miguel Indurain (6/7)   Tony Rominger (3/4)
1995   Tony Rominger (4/4)   Miguel Indurain (7/7)   Laurent Jalabert (1/1)
1996   Pavel Tonkov (1/1)   Bjarne Riis (1/1)   Alex Zülle (1/2)
1997   Ivan Gotti (1/2)   Jan Ullrich (1/2)   Alex Zülle (2/2)
1998   Marco Pantani (1/2)   Marco Pantani (2/2)   Abraham Olano (1/1)
1999   Ivan Gotti (2/2) brez zmagovalca   Jan Ullrich (2/2)
2000   Stefano Garzelli (1/1) brez zmagovalca   Roberto Heras (1/4)
2001   Gilberto Simoni (1/2) brez zmagovalca   Ángel Casero (1/1)
2002   Paolo Savoldelli (1/2) brez zmagovalca   Aitor González (1/1)
2003   Gilberto Simoni (2/2) brez zmagovalca   Roberto Heras (2/4)
2004   Damiano Cunego (1/1) brez zmagovalca   Roberto Heras (3/4)
2005   Paolo Savoldelli (2/2) brez zmagovalca   Roberto Heras (4/4)
2006   Ivan Basso (1/2)   Óscar Pereiro (1/1)   Aleksander Vinokurov (1/1)
2007   Danilo Di Luca (1/1)   Alberto Contador (1/7)   Denis Menčov (1/2)
2008   Alberto Contador (2/7)   Carlos Sastre (1/1)   Alberto Contador (3/7)
2009   Denis Menčov (2/2)   Alberto Contador (4/7)   Alejandro Valverde (1/1)
2010   Ivan Basso (2/2)   Andy Schleck (1/1)   Vincenzo Nibali (1/4)
2011   Michele Scarponi (1/1)   Cadel Evans (1/1)   Chris Froome (1/7)
2012   Ryder Hesjedal (1/1)   Bradley Wiggins (1/1)   Alberto Contador (5/7)
2013   Vincenzo Nibali (2/4)   Chris Froome (2/7)   Chris Horner (1/1)
2014   Nairo Quintana (1/2)   Vincenzo Nibali (3/4)   Alberto Contador (6/7)
2015   Alberto Contador (7/7)   Chris Froome (3/7)   Fabio Aru (1/1)
2016   Vincenzo Nibali (4/4)   Chris Froome (4/7)   Nairo Quintana (2/2)
2017   Tom Dumoulin (1/1)   Chris Froome (5/7)   Chris Froome (6/7)
2018   Chris Froome (7/7)   Geraint Thomas (1/1)   Simon Yates (1/1)
2019   Richard Carapaz (1/1)   Egan Bernal (1/2)   Primož Roglič (1/3)
2020   Tao Geoghegan Hart (1/1)   Tadej Pogačar (1/2)   Primož Roglič (2/3)
2021   Egan Bernal (2/2)   Tadej Pogačar (2/2)   Primož Roglič (3/3)
2022   Jai Hindley (1/1)   Jonas Vingegaard (1/1)   Remco Evenepoel (1/1)

Najuspešnejši kolesarjiUredi

Poz. Kolesar Skupno Dirka po Franciji Dirka po Italiji Dirka po Španiji
1   Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx 11 5 (1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974) 5 (1968, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974) 1 (1973)
2   Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault 10 5 (1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985) 3 (1980, 1982, 1985) 2 (1978, 1983)
3   Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil 8 5 (1957, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964) 2 (1960, 1964) 1 (1963)
4   Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi 7 2 (1949, 1952) 5 (1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953)
  Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain 7 5 (1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995) 2 (1992, 1993)
  Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador 7 2 (2007, 2009) 2 (2008, 2015) 3 (2008, 2012, 2014)
  Froome, ChrisChris Froome 7 4 (2013, 2015, 2016, 2017) 1 (2018) 2 (2011, 2017)
8   Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda 5 5 (1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1933)
  Bartali, GinoGino Bartali 5 2 (1938, 1948) 3 (1936, 1937, 1946)
  Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi 5 1 (1965) 3 (1967, 1969, 1976) 1 (1968)
11   Rominger, TonyTony Rominger 4 1 (1995) 3 (1992, 1993, 1994)
  Heras, RobertoRoberto Heras 4 4 (2000, 2003, 2004, 2005)
  Nibali, VincenzoVincenzo Nibali 4 1 (2014) 2 (2013, 2016) 1 (2010)

Zmage po državahUredi

Država Italija Francija Španija Skupaj
  Italija 69 10 6 85
  Francija 6 36 9 51
  Španija 4 12 32 48
  Belgija 7 18 8 33
  Združeno kraljestvo 2 6 3 11
  Švica 3 2 5 10
  Luksemburg 2 5 0 7
  ZDA 1 3 1 5
  Nizozemska 1 2 2 5
  Kolumbija 2 1 2 5
  Slovenija 0 2 3 5
  Nemčija 0 1 3 4
  Rusija 3 0 1 4
  Irska 1 1 1 3
  Avstralija 1 1 0 2
  Danska 0 2 0 2
  Švedska 1 0 0 1
  Kanada 1 0 0 1
  Ekvador 1 0 0 1
  Kazahstan 0 0 1 1

Zmagovalci etapUredi

Poz. Kolesar Francija Italija Španija Skupaj
1   Eddy Merckx 34 24 6 64
2   Mario Cipollini 12 42 3 57
3   Mark Cavendish 34 16 3 53
4   Alessandro Petacchi 6 22 20 48
5   Alfredo Binda 2 41 0 43
6   Bernard Hinault 28 6 7 41
7   Learco Guerra 8 31 0 39
8   Delio Rodríguez 0 0 39 39
9   Rik Van Looy 7 12 18 37
10   Freddy Maertens 15 7 13 35
11   Fausto Coppi 9 22 0 31
12   Costante Girardengo 0 30 0 30
13   Gino Bartali 12 17 0 29
14   Marino Basso 6 15 6 27
  Francesco Moser 2 23 2 27
16   Guido Bontempi 6 16 4 26
  Raffaele Di Paco 11 15 0 26
  Miguel Poblet 3 20 3 26
  Giuseppe Saronni 0 24 2 26
20   Franco Bitossi 4 21 0 25
  Laurent Jalabert 4 3 18 25
  André Leducq 25 0 0 25
  Rik Van Steenbergen 4 15 6 25
24   Roger De Vlaeminck 1 22 1 24
  Robbie McEwen 12 12 0 24
26   André Darrigade 22 1 0 23
27   Jacques Anquetil 16 5 1 22
  Jean Paul van Poppel 9 4 9 22
  André Greipel 11 7 4 22
30   Charly Gaul 10 11 0 21
  Sean Kelly 5 0 16 21

SkliciUredi

  1. 1,0 1,1 "UCI Cycling regulations—Part 2: Road Races" (PDF). January 1, 2017. str. 64. Pridobljeno dne 2017-07-06.
  2. "UCI Cycling regulations". str. 41. Arhivirano iz prvotnega spletišča dne 2011-06-23. Pridobljeno dne 2012-07-20.
  3. McMahon, Daniel. "Tour de France, world's biggest annual sporting event, is an amazing race and breathtaking logistical feat". Business Insider.