Uporabnik:Melaleuca alternifolia/peskovnik1: razlika med redakcijama

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'''Gigantizem''' ({{lang-el|γίγας}}, ''gígas'', "[[velikan]]", množina γίγαντες, ''gígantes'') je bolezensko stanje, pri katerem je za osebo značilna pretirana rast in telesna višina, ki presega povprečne vrednosti. Pri ljudeh do gigantizma pride zaradi pretiranega nastajanja [[Rastni hormon|rastnega hormona]] (somatotropina<ref>{{Navedi splet|title=Termania - Slovenski medicinski slovar - somatotropín|url=https://www.termania.net/slovarji/slovenski-medicinski-slovar/5539149/somatotropin?ld=95&query=rastni+hormon&SearchIn=Linked|website=www.termania.net|accessdate=2021-06-19}}</ref>)<ref>{{DorlandsDict|four/000044375|Gigantism}}</ref> v obdobju otroštva, pri čemer tovrstni ljudje dosežejo telesne višine od 2,1 do 2,7 metrov.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://pituitary.ucla.edu/resources|title=Gigantism {{!}} UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program|website=pituitary.ucla.edu|access-date=2017-04-27}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001174.htm|title=Gigantism: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia|website=medlineplus.gov|language=en|access-date=2017-04-27}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|date=2017-01-07|title=Gigantism and Acromegaly: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology and Etiology|url=http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/925446-overview}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly|title=Gigantism and Acromegaly - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders - MSD Manual Consumer Version|work=MSD Manual Consumer Version|access-date=2017-04-27|language=en}}</ref>
 
Gre za razmeroma redko bolezensko motnjo, ki je posledica zvišanih ravni rastnega hormona v obdobju pred zlitjem rastnega ([[Epifizni hrustanec|epifiznega]]) [[Hrustančevina|hrustanca]]. Stanje se običajno pojavi zaradi nenormalnih izrastlin ([[Tumor|tumorjev]]) na [[Hipofiza|hipofizehipofizi]].<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last1=Rostomyan|first1=Liliya|last2=Daly|first2=Adrian F.|last3=Petrossians|first3=Patrick|last4=Nachev|first4=Emil|last5=Lila|first5=Anurag R.|last6=Lecoq|first6=Anne-Lise|last7=Lecumberri|first7=Beatriz|last8=Trivellin|first8=Giampaolo|last9=Salvatori|first9=Roberto|date=October 2015|title=Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients|journal=Endocrine-Related Cancer|volume=22|issue=5|pages=745–757|doi=10.1530/ERC-15-0320|issn=1479-6821|pmid=26187128|pmc=6533620}}</ref><ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|last1=Rostomyan|first1=Liliya|last2=Potorac|first2=Iulia|last3=Beckers|first3=Pablo|last4=Daly|first4=Adrian F.|last5=Beckers|first5=Albert|title=AIP mutations and gigantism|journal=Annales d'Endocrinologie|volume=78|issue=2|pages=123–130|doi=10.1016/j.ando.2017.04.012|pmid=28483363|year=2017}}</ref> Gigantizma se ne sme zamenjevati z [[Akromegalija|akromegalijo]], ki je odrasla različica iste bolezenske motnje, in pri kateri se pojavi povečevanje [[Organ (biologija)|organov]] in akrov (štrlečih oziroma distalnih delov telesa).<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Chanson|first1=Philippe|last2=Salenave|first2=Sylvie|date=2008-06-25|title=Acromegaly|journal=Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases|volume=3|pages=17|doi=10.1186/1750-1172-3-17|pmid=18578866|pmc=2459162|issn=1750-1172}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Capatina|first1=Cristina|last2=Wass|first2=John A. H.|date=August 2015|title=60 YEARS OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Acromegaly|journal=The Journal of Endocrinology|volume=226|issue=2|pages=T141–160|doi=10.1530/JOE-15-0109|issn=1479-6805|pmid=26136383|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref>{{Navedi splet|title=Termania - Slovenski medicinski slovar - akromegalíja|url=https://www.termania.net/slovarji/slovenski-medicinski-slovar/5504847/akromegalija?ld=95&query=akromegalija&SearchIn=Linked|website=www.termania.net|accessdate=2021-06-19}}</ref><ref>{{Navedi knjigo|edition=[1st English ed.]|title=The human body : an introduction to structure and function|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/56415097|publisher=Georg Thieme|date=2004|location=Stuttgart|isbn=978-3-13-129271-1|oclc=56415097|first=Adolf|last=Faller|first2=Gabriele|last2=Schünke|first3=Ethan|last3=Taub}}</ref>
 
== CauseVzork ==
GigantismZa isgigantizem characterizedje byznačilna anpretirana excessraven ofrastnega [[growth hormone]]hormona (GH). ThisSlednja excessje ofv growthvečini hormoneprimerov thatposledica bringsnovotvorb about gigantism is virtually always caused by pituitary growthshipofize (adenomas[[Adenom|adenomov]]).<ref name=":1" /> TheseAdenomi [[adenoma]]sse arerazvijejo onna theprednjem [[Anteriorrežnju pituitary|anteriorhipofize, pituitaryna glandtako imenovani [[Adenohipofiza|adenohipofizi]]. TheyZmožni canso alsotudi causepovzročitve overproductionpretiranega ofizločanja GH's[[Somatoliberin|somatoliberina]] hypothalamic(GHRH), precursorki known asje [[Growth hormone–releasing hormoneHipotalamus|growthhipotalamusni]] hormoneprekurzor releasingrastnega hormone]] (GHRH)hormona.<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Zimmerman|first1=D|last2=Young|first2=W F|last3=Ebersold|first3=M J|last4=Scheithauer|first4=B W|last5=Kovacs|first5=K|last6=Horvath|first6=E|last7=Whitaker|first7=M D|last8=Eberhardt|first8=N L|last9=Downs|first9=T R|date=1993-01-01|title=Congenital gigantism due to growth hormone-releasing hormone excess and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation.|journal=The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism|language=en|volume=76|issue=1|pages=216–222|doi=10.1210/jcem.76.1.8421089|pmid=8421089|issn=0021-972X}}</ref>
 
AsZaradi aodvečne resultkoličine ofrastnega thehormona excessiveotroci amountsz ofgigantizmom growthdosežejo hormone,nenormalne childrentelesne achieve heights thatvišine, areki wellprecej abovepresegajo normalpovprečne rangesvrednost.<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Eugster|first1=Erica A.|last2=Pescovitz|first2=Ora H.|date=1999-12-01|title=Gigantism|journal=The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism|volume=84|issue=12|pages=4379–4384|doi=10.1210/jcem.84.12.6222|pmid=10599691|issn=0021-972X|doi-access=free}}</ref> TheStarost, specificpri agekateri ofse onsetzačnejo forkazati gigantismjasni variesznaki betweengigantizma, patientsje andpogosto gendervariabilna, butvelikokrat thepa common age that excessive growth symptoms startse to appear has been found tozgodi beob aroundstarosti 13 yearslet.<ref name=":0" /> OtherZa healthobolele complications,so suchznačilna astudi [[hypertension]]druge bolezenske težave, maykot occurje indenimo [[Pediatrics|pediatric]]zvišan patientskrvni with [[Secretion|hyper-secretiontlak]] of growth hormone(hipertenzija). CharacteristicsZnačilnosti, moreki similarso tobolj thosepogoste seenza inbolnike [[acromegaly]]z mayakromegalijo, occurse inlahko patientspojavijo thatpri arepacientih closer in age toblizu [[Adolescenca|adolescence]] since(mladostniškega obdobja), theyki areso nearingbližje growthzlitju platerastnega fusionhrustanca.<ref>{{Cite book|chapter-url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278971/|title=Endotext|last1=Murray|first1=P. G.|last2=Clayton|first2=P. E.|date=2000|publisher=MDText.com, Inc.|editor-last=De Groot|editor-first=Leslie J.|location=South Dartmouth (MA)|pmid=25905205|editor-last2=Chrousos|editor-first2=George|editor-last3=Dungan|editor-first3=Kathleen|editor-last4=Feingold|editor-first4=Kenneth R.|editor-last5=Grossman|editor-first5=Ashley|editor-last6=Hershman|editor-first6=Jerome M.|editor-last7=Koch|editor-first7=Christian|editor-last8=Korbonits|editor-first8=Márta|editor-last9=McLachlan|editor-first9=Robert|chapter=Disorders of Growth Hormone in Childhood}}</ref>
 
=== Hormonal cause ===