Uporabnik:Matjazgregoric/peskovnik: razlika med redakcijama

brez povzetka urejanja
 
Randi je razlikoval med psevdoznanostjo in neumno znanostjo (ang. crackpot science). Večino parapsihologije je zaradi načina, na katerega se do nje pristopa, uvrščal med psevdoznanost.<ref name="Terzian-Bilson"> Randi je ocenil, da je neumna znanost "enako napačna" kot psevdoznanost, vendar brez znanstvenih pretenzij.<ref>{{cite journal |editor-last=Ripin |editor-first=Barrett H. |date=June 1995 |title=Trio Takes Aim Against Spread of Pseudo-Science |journal=APS News |volume=4 |issue=6 |issn=1058-8132 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url=http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/199506/pseudo-science.cfm |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131228153120/http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/199506/pseudo-science.cfm |archivedate=December 28, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
 
[[File:James Randi with Skull Cane 2014.jpg|thumb|right|James Randi with Skull Cane 2014]]
 
V zadnje desetletju je Randi začel prirejati konference, znane kot "Neverjetno srečanje" (ang. The Amazing Meeting (TAM)), ki so hitro postale največje srečanje skeptikov na svetu in so priegnile občinstvo iz Azije, Evrope, Južne Amerike in Velike Britanije. Privabile so tudi velik odstotek mlajših udeležencev.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.amazingmeeting.com/TAM2012/about/|title=The Amaz!ng Meeting 2012: About|access-date=September 29, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130305073423/http://www.amazingmeeting.com/TAM2012/about/|archivedate=March 5, 2013|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last=Frazier |first=Kendrick |authorlink=Kendrick Frazier |date=March 2015 |title=Organized Skepticism: Four Decades ... and Today |url=http://www.csicop.org/si/show/organized_skepticism_four_decades_..._and_today |journal=Skeptical Inquirer |volume=39 |issue=2 |accessdate=October 25, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161003140636/http://www.csicop.org/si/show/organized_skepticism_four_decades_..._and_today |archivedate=October 3, 2016 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi je bil reden gost podkastov, vključno s Skepticality, uradnim podkastom združenja The Skeptics Society<ref name="skepticality10">{{cite podcast |url=http://www.skepticality.com/the-james-randi-educational-foundation/ |title=#10 The James Randi Educational Foundation |website=[[Skepticality]] |publisher=[[The Skeptics Society]] |location=Altadena, CA |date=June 28, 2005 |last1=Swoopy |authorlink1=Robynn McCarthy |last2=Colanduno |first2=Derek |authorlink2=Derek Colanduno |accessdate=November 27, 2011 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110708082512/http://www.skepticality.com/the-james-randi-educational-foundation/ |archivedate=July 8, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="skepticality67a">{{cite podcast |url=http://www.skepticality.com/xmas-2007/ |title=#67a Xmas 2007 |website=Skepticality |publisher=The Skeptics Society |location=Altadena, CA |date=December 22, 2007 |last1=Swoopy |last2=Colanduno |first2=Derek |accessdate=November 27, 2011 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110708084226/http://www.skepticality.com/xmas-2007/ |archivedate=July 8, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> in Point of Inquiry, uradnim podkastom združenja Center of Inquiry.<ref name="Point of Inquiry">{{cite web|url=http://www.pointofinquiry.org/|title=Point of Inquiry|accessdate=June 30, 2006|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060702003307/http://www.pointofinquiry.org/|archivedate=July 2, 2006|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Od septembra 2006 je s kolumno z naslovom »Randi govori« občasno sodeloval s podkastom The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe <ref name="sg2u">{{cite web|url=http://theskepticsguide.org/|title=The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe|accessdate=October 29, 2006|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061107095620/http://www.theskepticsguide.org/|archivedate=November 7, 2006|df=mdy-all}}</ref> V podkastu The Amazing Show je v obliki intervjuja delil različne anekdote.<ref name="AmazingShow">{{cite web | url=http://itricks.com/randishow/ | title=The Amazing Show starring James Randi | publisher=itricks.com | accessdate=January 22, 2014 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140201190118/http://itricks.com/randishow/ | archivedate=February 1, 2014 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
Randi se smatra za [[Ateist|ateista]].<ref name="No Religion">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=August 5, 2005 |title=Our Stance on Atheism |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=January 27, 2011 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/080505potential.html#14 |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090710051137/http://www.randi.org/jr/080505potential.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 10, 2009 }}</ref> in meni, da je večina svetih tekstov neverjetnih. Zapisal je, da je roman [[Čarovnik iz Oza]] bistveno bolj verjeten kot [[Biblija]], hkrati pa še bistveno bolj zabaven.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=July 25, 2003 |title=Why I Deny Religion, How Silly and Fantastic It Is, and Why I'm a Dedicated and Vociferous Bright |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/072503.html |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20091007191524/http://www.randi.org/jr/072503.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=October 7, 2009 }}</ref> Randi je kot pojasnilo k svojim pogledom na religijo zapisal: "Povedal sem že: obstajata dva tipa ateistov. Taki, ki trdijo, da božanstvo ne obstaja, in tisti, ki trdijo, da ni dokazov za obstoj božanstva. Jaz pripadam sledni skupini, saj če bi trdil, da bog ne obstaja, bi moral za tako izjavo imeti dokaze, teh pa ne morem imeti. Verni ljudje imajo daleč lažjo nalogo. Pravijo, da verjamejo v neko božanstvo zato, ker tako želijo in so tako prebrali v neki knjigi. To je njihova pravica."<ref name="No Religion"/>
 
==Nadnaravni izziv za milijon dolarjev==
==One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge==
 
{{Main|One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge}}
The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) offered a prize of US$1,000,000 to anyone able to demonstrate a supernatural ability under [[Science|scientific]] testing criteria agreed to by both sides. Based on the paranormal challenges of [[John Nevil Maskelyne]] and [[Houdini]], the foundation began in 1996, when Randi put up $1,000 of his own money payable to anyone who could provide objective proof of the paranormal.<ref name="Poulsen">{{cite news |title=Skeptic Revamps $1M Psychic Prize |first=Kevin |last=Poulsen |authorlink=Kevin Poulsen |url=https://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72482 |work=[[Wired (magazine)|Wired]] |location=San Francisco |date=January 12, 2007 |accessdate=April 11, 2008 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080831010919/http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72482 |archivedate=August 31, 2008 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> The prize money grew to $1,000,000, and had formal published rules. No one progressed past the preliminary test, which was set up with parameters agreed to by both Randi and the applicant. He refused to accept any challengers who might suffer serious injury or death as a result of the testing.<ref>{{cite web |title=Rules and Guidelines |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/component/content/article/37-static/254-jref-challenge-faq.html |publisher=JREF |accessdate=November 28, 2012}}</ref>
 
On April 1, 2007, it was ruled that only persons with an established, nationally recognized media profile and the backing of a reputable academic were allowed to apply for the challenge, in order to avoid wasting JREF resources on frivolous claimants.<ref name="Poulsen"/>
 
On ''[[Larry King Live]]'', March 6, 2001, [[Larry King]] asked claimed medium [[Sylvia Browne]] if she would take the challenge and she agreed.<ref>{{cite interview |last1=Edward |first1=John |authorlink1=John Edward |last2=Jaroff |first2=Leon |authorlink2=Leon Jaroff |last3=Browne |first3=Sylvia |authorlink3=Sylvia Browne |last4=Van Praagh |first4=James |authorlink4=James Van Praagh |last5=Boteach |first5=Shmuley |authorlink5=Shmuley Boteach |last6=Kurtz |first6=Paul |authorlink6=Paul Kurtz |last7=Van Zandt |first7=Clint |last8=Graff |first8=Dale |interviewer=[[Larry King]] |title=Are Psychics for Real? |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0103/06/lkl.00.html |work=[[Larry King Live]] |publisher=[[CNN]] |date=March 6, 2001 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131223174627/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0103/06/lkl.00.html |archivedate=December 23, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi appeared with Browne on ''Larry King Live'' six months later, and she again appeared to accept his challenge.<ref name="CNN09032001">{{cite interview |last1=Randi |first1=James |last2=Browne |first2=Sylvia |interviewer=Larry King |title=Are Psychics Real? |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0109/03/lkl.00.html |work=Larry King Live |publisher=CNN |date=September 3, 2001 |accessdate=August 18, 2006 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061027032612/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0109/03/lkl.00.html |archivedate=October 27, 2006 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> However, according to Randi, she ultimately refused to be tested, and the Randi Foundation kept a clock on its website recording the number of weeks since Browne allegedly accepted the challenge without following through, until Browne's death in November 2013.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/sylvia/ |title=The Sylvia Browne Clock |publisher=JREF |accessdate=October 9, 2013}}</ref>
 
During a subsequent appearance on ''Larry King Live'' on June 5, 2001, Randi challenged [[Rosemary Altea]], another claimed medium, to undergo testing for the million dollars, but Altea refused to address the question.<ref name="AlteaLarryKing">{{cite interview |last1=Altea |first1=Rosemary |authorlink1=Rosemary Altea |last2=Randi |first2=James |interviewer=Larry King |title=Spiritual Medium Versus Paranormal Skeptic |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0106/05/lkl.00.html |work=Larry King Live |publisher=CNN |date=June 5, 2001 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130406032110/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0106/05/lkl.00.html |archivedate=April 6, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Instead Altea replied only, "I agree with what he says, that there are many, many people who claim to be spiritual mediums, they claim to talk to the dead. There are many people, we all know this. There are cheats and charlatans everywhere."<ref name="AlteaLarryKing" /> On January 26, 2007, Altea and Randi again appeared on the show, and Altea again refused to answer whether or not she would take the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge.<ref>{{cite interview |last1=Altea |first1=Rosemary |last2=Randi |first2=James |interviewer=Larry King |title=The Controversy Swirling Around Psychic Sylvia Brown and Her Inaccurate Read on a Now Famous Kidnapping Victim |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/26/lkl.01.html |work=[[Larry King Live]] |publisher=[[CNN]] |date=January 26, 2007 |accessdate=February 2, 2007 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070203080509/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/26/lkl.01.html |archivedate=February 3, 2007 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
 
In October 2007, claimed psychic [[John Edward]] appeared on ''Headline Prime'', hosted by [[Glenn Beck]]. When asked if he would take "''the Amazing Randi's''" challenge, Edward responded, "It's funny. I was on ''Larry King Live'' once, and they asked me the same question. And I made a joke [then], and I'll say the same thing here: Why would I allow myself to be tested by somebody who's got an adjective as a first name?"<ref>{{cite web|author=Beck, Glenn|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0610/27/gb.01.html|title=John Edward Shares Insights into His Career|publisher=CNN|date=October 27, 2006|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140407092520/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0610/27/gb.01.html|archivedate=April 7, 2014|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Beck simply allowed Edward to continue, ignoring the challenge.
 
TheIzobraževalna Jamesfundacija Randi EducationalJamesa FoundationRandija (JREF) offeredje aponudila prizenagrado ofv višini US$1,.000,.000 toameriških anyonedolarjev ablevsem to(ang. demonstrateOne aMillion supernaturalDollar abilityParanormal underChallenge), [[Science|scientific]]ki testinglahko criteriapokažejo agreednadnaravno tosposobnost byv bothskladu sides.z Basedmerili onznanstvenega thetestiranja, paranormalo challengeskaterih ofse [[Johnvnaprej Nevilstrinjata Maskelyne]]obe andstrani. [[Houdini]],Fundacija these foundationje beganzačela inleta 1996, whenko je Randi putpriskrbel up1000 $1dolarjev lastnega denarja,000 ofki hisjih ownje moneymoral payableplačati tovsem, anyoneki whobi couldlahko providezagotovili objectiveobjektivni proofdokaz ofo the paranormalnadnaravnem.<ref name="Poulsen">{{cite news |title=Skeptic Revamps $1M Psychic Prize |first=Kevin |last=Poulsen |authorlink=Kevin Poulsen |url=https://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72482 |work=[[Wired (magazine)|Wired]] |location=San Francisco |date=January 12, 2007 |accessdate=April 11, 2008 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080831010919/http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72482 |archivedate=August 31, 2008 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> TheSčasoma prizese moneyje grewdenarna tonagrada povečala na $1,.000,.000, andUSD hadin formalje publishedimela rules.formalno Noobjavljena onepravila. progressedV pastvseh theletih preliminarynihče test,ni whichnapredoval wasmimo setpredhodnega uptesta, withki parametersje agreedbil topostavljen bys bothparametri, Randio andkaterih thesta applicant.se Hestrinjala refusedtako toRandi acceptkot anyizzivalec. challengersRandi whoje mightzavrnil suffer serious injuryizzivalce, orki deathbi aszaradi atestiranja resultlahko ofutrpeli theresne testingpoškodbe.<ref>{{cite web |title=Rules and Guidelines |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/component/content/article/37-static/254-jref-challenge-faq.html |publisher=JREF |accessdate=November 28, 2012}}</ref>
Randi asked British businessman Jim McCormick, the inventor of the bogus [[ADE 651]] bomb detector, to take the challenge in October 2008.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/231-a-direct-specific-challenge-from-james-randi-and-the-jref.html |title=A Direct, Specific, Challenge From James Randi and the JREF |last1=Randi |first1=James |year=2008 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100123010157/http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/231-a-direct-specific-challenge-from-james-randi-and-the-jref.html |archivedate=January 23, 2010 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi called the ADE 651 "a useless quack device which cannot perform any other function than separating naive persons from their money. It's a fake, a scam, a swindle, and a blatant fraud. Prove me wrong and take the million dollars."<ref name="Times-Iraqis spent">{{cite news |title=Iraqis spent $80m on ADE651 bomb detectors described as useless |first1=Simon |last1=de Bruxelles |first2=Oliver |last2=August |authorlink2=Oliver August |url=http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/technology/article1859809.ece |newspaper=[[The Times]] |location=London |date=November 28, 2009 |accessdate=January 22, 2010}}</ref> There was no response from McCormick.<ref name="nyt4nov09">{{cite news |title=Iraq Swears by Bomb Detector U.S. Sees as Useless |first=Rod |last=Nordland |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/04/world/middleeast/04sensors.html |work=The New York Times |date=November 3, 2009 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111015141410/http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/04/world/middleeast/04sensors.html |archivedate=October 15, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> According to Iraqi investigators, the ADE 651, which was corruptly sold to the Baghdad bomb squad, was responsible for the deaths of hundreds of civilians who died as a result of terrorist bombs which were not detected at checkpoints. On April 23, 2013, McCormick was convicted of three counts of fraud at the [[Old Bailey]] in [[London]];<ref>{{cite news |title=James McCormick guilty of selling fake bomb detectors |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22266051 |work=[[BBC News]] |location=London |date=April 23, 2013 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131008121603/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22266051 |archivedate=October 8, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> he was subsequently sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for his part in the ADE 651 scandal, which Randi was the first to expose.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ezpzbe/iraqs-most-popular-bomb-detection-device-is-useless-video|title=Motherboard|last=Pasternack|first=Alex|date=March 21, 2013|access-date=September 29, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170929232406/https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ezpzbe/iraqs-most-popular-bomb-detection-device-is-useless-video|archivedate=September 29, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref name="Booth">{{cite news |title=Fake bomb detector conman jailed for 10 years |first=Robert |last=Booth |url=https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/may/02/fake-bomb-detector-conman-jailed |work=[[The Guardian]] |location=London |date=May 2, 2013 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131004070111/http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/may/02/fake-bomb-detector-conman-jailed |archivedate=October 4, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
 
APrvega publicaprila log2007 ofje pastbilo participantsodločeno, inda these Millionlahko Dollarna Challengeizziv prijavijo samo osebe z uveljavljenim, nacionalno priznanim medijskim profilom ali s podporo ugledne osebe iz akademskega sveta, da bi preprečili zapravljanje sredstev JREF za neresne izzivalce.<ref name="Poulsen"/> Obstaja javni dnevnik preteklih udeležencev izziva za milijone existsdolarjev.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.internationalskeptics.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=43 |title=Challenge Applications |publisher=International Skeptics Forum |accessdate=10 June 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160619060604/http://www.internationalskeptics.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=43 |archivedate=June 19, 2016 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Leta 2015 se je nadnaravni izziv Jamesa Randija uradno zaključil.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html|title=The Million Dollar Challenge|website=JREF|accessdate=September 3, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170904164131/http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html|archivedate=September 4, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
In 2015, the James Randi paranormal challenge was officially terminated.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html|title=The Million Dollar Challenge|website=JREF|accessdate=September 3, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170904164131/http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html|archivedate=September 4, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
 
==Osebno življenje==
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