Uporabnik:Matjazgregoric/peskovnik: razlika med redakcijama

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'''James Randi'''
{{short description|Canadian-American stage magician and scientific skeptic (born 1928)}}
{{use Canadian English|date=September 2015}}
{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2016}}
{{Infobox person
| name = James Randi
| image = Preferred official head-shot from James Randi Educational Foundation.jpg
| caption =
| birth_name = Randall James Hamilton Zwinge
| birth_date = {{birth date and age|1928|08|07}}
| birth_place = [[Toronto]], [[Ontario]], [[Canada]]
| death_date =
| death_place =
| death_cause =
| occupation = {{hlist|Magician|illusionist|author|skeptic}}
| years active = 1946−2015
| salary =
| networth =
| spouse = {{marriage|José Alvarez (born Deyvi Orangel Peña Arteaga)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.southflorida.com/theater-and-arts/sf-jose-alvarez-amazing-randi-art-hollywood-20150326-story.html|title=Now you see them: The tricky world of the Amazing Randi and Jose Alvarez|publisher=Southflorida.com|author=Phillip Valys|date=26 March 2015|accessdate=30 March 2016|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160411205538/http://www.southflorida.com/theater-and-arts/sf-jose-alvarez-amazing-randi-art-hollywood-20150326-story.html|archivedate=April 11, 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref>|2013}}
| parents =
| website = {{URL|http://www.randi.org}}
| nationality = [[Canadians|Canadian]]<br/>American (naturalized)
| ethnicity =
| television =
| signature = JamesRandiSignature.png
| education =
| alma_mater =
| residence =
| module = {{Listen
| filename = Audio James Randi.wav
| title = James Randi's voice
| type = speech
| description = recorded October 2016 at [[CSICon]]
'''James Randi''' (born '''Randall James Hamilton Zwinge'''; August 7, 1928) is a [[Canadian Americans|Canadian-American]] retired stage magician and a [[scientific skepticism|scientific skeptic]]<ref name="Higginbotham">{{cite news |first=Adam |last=Higginbotham |title=The Unbelievable Skepticism of the Amazing Randi |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/09/magazine/the-unbelievable-skepticism-of-the-amazing-randi.html?action=click&contentCollection=Magazine&region=Footer&module=MoreInSection&pgtype=article |work=[[The New York Times Magazine]] |date=November 7, 2014 |accessdate=November 8, 2014 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141108162548/http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/09/magazine/the-unbelievable-skepticism-of-the-amazing-randi.html?action=click&contentCollection=Magazine&region=Footer&module=MoreInSection&pgtype=article |archivedate=November 8, 2014 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="nyt 1988-07-27">{{cite news |title=Water That Has a Memory? Skeptics Win Second Round |last=Sullivan |first=Walter |authorlink=Walter S. Sullivan |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/27/us/water-that-has-a-memory-skeptics-win-second-round.html |newspaper=[[The New York Times]] |date=July 27, 1988 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131113054121/http://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/27/us/water-that-has-a-memory-skeptics-win-second-round.html |archivedate=November 13, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="nyt 2001-02-17">{{cite news |title=Poof! You're a Skeptic: The Amazing Randi's Vanishing Humbug |first=Patricia |last=Cohen |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/17/arts/17RAND.html |newspaper=The New York Times |date=February 17, 2001 |accessdate=May 5, 2010 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090920070940/http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/17/arts/17RAND.html |archivedate=September 20, 2009 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> who has extensively challenged [[paranormal]] and [[pseudoscientific]] claims.<ref name="Rodrigues">[[#Rodrigues|Rodrigues 2010]], [https://books.google.com/books?id=OsGuZjYzXdAC&pg=PA271 p. 271]</ref> Randi is the co-founder of the [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry]] (CSI), originally known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP). He is also the founder of the [[James Randi Educational Foundation]] (JREF). He began his career as a magician under the stage name '''The Amazing Randi''' and later chose to devote most of his time to investigating paranormal, [[occult]], and [[supernatural]] claims, which he collectively calls "woo-woo".<ref name="Randiwoo">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=February 9, 2007 |title=More Geller Woo-Woo |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=2016-12-26 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-02/020209morebrowne.html#i7 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090710012001/http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-02/020209morebrowne.html#i7 |archivedate=July 10, 2009 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi retired from practicing magic at age 60, and from the JREF at 87.
Although often referred to as a "[[debunker]]", Randi has said he dislikes the term's connotations and prefers to describe himself as an "investigator".<ref name=westdefense/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://affect.media.mit.edu/milliondollarchallenge/ |title=One-Million-Dollar Challenge |work=MIT Media Lab: Affective Computing Group |publisher=[[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110727062223/http://affect.media.mit.edu/milliondollarchallenge/ |archivedate=July 27, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> He has written about paranormal phenomena, skepticism, and the history of magic. He was a frequent guest on ''[[The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson]]'', famously exposing fraudulent [[faith healer]] [[Peter Popoff]], and was occasionally featured on the television program ''[[Penn & Teller: Bullshit!]]''
Before Randi's retirement, JREF sponsored the [[One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge]], which offered a prize of one million dollars US to eligible applicants who could demonstrate evidence of any paranormal, supernatural, or occult power or event under test conditions agreed to by both parties.<ref>{{cite web|title=JREF Status|url=http://web.randi.org/home/jref-status|publisher=JREF|accessdate=November 12, 2015|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170830152145/http://web.randi.org/home/jref-status|archivedate=August 30, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref> The paranormal challenge was officially terminated by the JREF in 2015.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html |title=The Million Dollar Challenge |accessdate=2015-01-05 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170904164131/http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html |archivedate=September 4, 2017 |df=mdy-all }} James Randi Educational Foundation</ref> The foundation continues to make grants to non-profit groups that encourage critical thinking and a fact-based world view.
==Early life==
Randi was born on August 7, 1928 in [[Toronto]], [[Ontario]], Canada,<ref name="HWWilson">[[#Moritz|Moritz 1987]], p. 455</ref> the son of Marie Alice (née Paradis) and George Randall Zwinge.<ref name="HWWilson" /> He has a younger brother and sister.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://archive.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/192-swift-may#i3 |title=How Wrong Can You Get? |last=Randi |first=James |date=May 9, 2008 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=10 June 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160921213014/http://archive.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/192-swift-may#i3 |archivedate=September 21, 2016 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> He took up [[magic (illusion)|magic]] after seeing [[Harry Blackstone Sr.]]<ref>{{YouTube|id=wJMTyK0VfdY|title=James Randi at the Magic Castle: In Conversation with Max Maven|link=no}}</ref> and reading conjuring books while spending 13 months in a [[Orthopedic cast|body cast]] following a bicycle accident. He confounded doctors who expected he would never walk again.<ref name="TorontoStar1986">{{cite news |title=The Amazing Randi |first=Patricia |last=Orwen |url=http://zammoth-jamesrandi.blogspot.com/ |newspaper=[[Toronto Star]] |publisher=[[Torstar|Torstar Corporation]] |date=August 23, 1986 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131106183159/http://zammoth-jamesrandi.blogspot.com/ |archivedate=November 6, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi often skipped classes and, at 17, dropped out of high school to perform as a conjurer in a carnival roadshow.<ref>{{cite news |title=The 'quack' hunter |first=Jeanne |last=Malmgren |others=''Times'' researcher Barbara Oliver contributed to this report. |url=http://www.sptimes.com/Floridian/41498/The__quack__hunter.html |newspaper=[[Tampa Bay Times|St. Petersburg Times]] |location=St. Petersburg, FL |date=April 14, 1998 |accessdate=August 19, 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110301011756/http://www.sptimes.com/Floridian/41498/The__quack__hunter.html |archivedate=March 1, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> He practised as a [[Mentalism|mentalist]] in local nightclubs and at Toronto's [[Canadian National Exhibition]] and wrote for [[Montreal]]'s tabloid press.<ref name="Colombo">[[#Colombo|Colombo 2004]], [https://books.google.com/books?id=OXP_OpQna4gC&pg=PA182 p. 182]</ref>
In his twenties, Randi posed as an [[astrologer]] and, to establish that they were actually doing simple tricks, he briefly wrote an astrological column in the Canadian tabloid ''[[Globe (tabloid)|Midnight]]'' under the name "Zo-ran" by simply shuffling up items from newspaper astrology columns and pasting them randomly into a column.<ref>[[#Randi 1982c|Randi 1982c]], pp. 230–231. Randi reprints two newspaper columns from the ''[[Toronto Telegram|Toronto Evening Telegram]]'' of August 28, 1950, and August 14, 1950, by Wessely Hicks about Randall Zwinge's psychic predictions. The earlier column states that "Mr. Zwinge said he first became aware that he possessed Extra Sensory Perception when he was nine years old."</ref><ref>[[#Randi 1982a|Randi 1982a]], pp. 61–62</ref> In his thirties, Randi worked in the UK, Europe, [[Philippines|Philippine]] nightclubs, and all across [[Japan]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=May 19, 2006 |title=Filipino Justice |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-05/051906sylvia.html#i13 |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20091007175115/http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-05/051906sylvia.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=October 7, 2009 }}</ref> He witnessed many tricks that were presented as being supernatural. One of his earliest reported experiences is that of seeing an [[Evangelism|evangelist]] using a version of the "[[billet reading|one-ahead]]"<ref name="Time01">{{cite news|title=Fighting Against Flimflam|first=Leon|last=Jaroff|authorlink=Leon Jaroff|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,149448,00.html?iid=chix-sphere|work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]|date=June 24, 2001|accessdate=June 18, 2007|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930142033/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,149448,00.html?iid=chix-sphere|archivedate=September 30, 2007|df=mdy-all}}</ref> technique to convince churchgoers of his [[divinity|divine]] powers.<ref name="Taft">{{cite news|first=Philip B., Jr.|last=Taft|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/05/nyregion/a-charlatan-in-pursuit-of-truth.html|title=A Charlatan in Pursuit of Truth|work=The New York Times|date=July 5, 1981|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170930035857/http://www.nytimes.com/1981/07/05/nyregion/a-charlatan-in-pursuit-of-truth.html|archivedate=September 30, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
[[File:RandiFork.jpg|thumb|Fork bent by Randi]]
Though defining himself as a conjuror, Randi began a career as a professional stage magician<ref name="takedown">{{cite web |url=http://www.ted.com/talks/james_randi.html |title=James Randi: Homeopathy, quackery and fraud |date=February 2007 |work=[[TED (conference)|TED]] |publisher=[[Sapling Foundation]] |location=New York |accessdate=April 24, 2010 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110719111508/http://www.ted.com/talks/james_randi.html |archivedate=July 19, 2011 |df=mdy-all }} Randi explained in a February 2007 presentation that he believes the word "magician" implies one who has actual magical abilities, whereas a conjurer is one who uses skills to merely play the part of one.</ref> and [[escapologist]] in 1946. Initially, he presented himself under his real name, Randall Zwinge, which he later dropped in favor of "The Amazing Randi". Early in his career, he performed numerous escape acts from jail cells and safes around the world. On February 7, 1956, he appeared live on [[NBC]]'s ''[[Today (U.S. TV program)|Today]]'' show, where he remained for 104 minutes in a sealed metal coffin that had been submerged in a hotel swimming pool, breaking what was said to be [[Harry Houdini]]'s record of 93 minutes, though Randi calls attention to the fact that he was very much younger than Houdini when the original record was established, in 1926.<ref name="Sinclair">{{cite news |title=Television & radio column |first=Gordon |last=Sinclair |authorlink=Gordon Sinclair |newspaper=[[Toronto Star|Toronto Daily Star]] |date=February 7, 1956}}</ref><ref name="Bryant">{{cite news |title=Handcuffs no problem Toronto-born magician laughs at locksmiths |first=George |last=Bryant |newspaper=Toronto Daily Star |date=June 21, 1956}}</ref>
Randi was a frequent guest on the [[Long John Nebel]] program on [[New York City|New York]] radio station [[WOR (AM)|WOR]], and did character voices for commercials.<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|31:00}} After Nebel went to [[WNBC (AM)|WNBC]] in 1962, Randi was given the time slot, and from 1967 to '68 hosted ''The Amazing Randi Show''.<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|35:00}} <ref name="Randiofficialbio">{{cite web|url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/component/content/article/58.html|title=About James Randi Full Bio|year=2007|publisher=JREF|accessdate=October 9, 2013}}</ref> This show often had guests who defended paranormal claims, among them Randi's then-friend [[James W. Moseley]]. Randi says he quit WOR over complaints (disputed by Randi) from the archbishop of New York, that Randi had said on-air that "Jesus Christ was a religious nut."<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|35:00}}
Randi also hosted numerous television specials and went on several world tours. As "The Amazing Randi" he appeared regularly on the New York-based children's television series ''[[Wonderama]]'' from 1959 to 1967.<ref name="Butler">{{cite web |url=http://www.tvparty.com/lostwonder1.html |title=Wonderama! |last1=Butler |first1=Kevin S. |last2=Ingram |first2=Billy |work=TVparty! |publisher=William Ingram |location=Greensboro, NC |accessdate=April 5, 2007 |quote=Sonny Fox hosted another 'Wonderama Thanksgiving Day Party' on Thursday afternoon, November 23, 1961 with guests ventriloquist and cartoon voice-over performer Paul Winchell, magician/escape artist and magic historian The Amazing James Randi and folk singer Pat Woodell. |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061230223655/http://www.tvparty.com/lostwonder1.html |archivedate=December 30, 2006 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> He also auditioned for a revival of the 1950s children's show ''[[The Magic Clown]]'' in 1970, which showed briefly in Detroit and in Kenya, but was never picked up.<ref name="Butler 2">{{cite web |url=http://www.tvparty.com/lostny2bonamo.html |title=Bonamo, The Magic Clown |last=Butler |first=Kevin S. |work=TVparty! |publisher=William Ingram |location=Greensboro, NC |accessdate=May 13, 2008 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080510233350/http://www.tvparty.com/lostny2bonamo.html |archivedate=May 10, 2008 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> In the February 2, 1974, issue of the British conjuring magazine ''[[Goodliffe's Abracadabra|Abracadabra]]'', Randi, defining the community of magicians, stated: "I know of no calling which depends so much upon mutual trust and faith as does ours." In the December 2003 issue of ''[[The Linking Ring]]'', the monthly publication of the [[International Brotherhood of Magicians]], it is stated: "Perhaps Randi's ethics are what make him Amazing" and "The Amazing Randi not only talks the talk, he walks the walk."<ref>{{cite journal |last=Barber |first=Peter W. |date=December 2003 |title=Points to Ponder: Another Matter of Ethics |journal=[[The Linking Ring]] |volume=83 |issue=12 |page=97 |issn=0024-4023}}</ref>
During [[Alice Cooper]]'s 1973–1974 [[Billion Dollar Babies tour]], Randi performed on stage both as a mad dentist and as Alice's executioner.<ref>{{cite AV media |last=Gannon |first=Joe (Director) |authorlink=Joe Gannon |year=1974 |title=[[Good To See You Again, Alice Cooper]] |medium=Motion picture |work=[[Penthouse (magazine)|General Media International, Inc.]] |oclc=62534800}}</ref> He also built several of the stage props, including the [[guillotine (magic trick)|guillotine]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sickthingsuk.co.uk/people/p-randi.php|title=The Amazing Randi|website=SickthingsUK|publisher=Simon Halley|location=Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England|accessdate=May 18, 2007|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071108052435/http://www.sickthingsuk.co.uk/people/p-randi.php|archivedate=November 8, 2007|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Shortly after that, in a 1976 performance for the Canadian TV special ''World of Wizards'', Randi escaped from a [[straitjacket]] while suspended upside-down over [[Niagara Falls]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=May 3, 2002 |title=Dangerous Stunts |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=May 18, 2007 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/050302.html |archive-url=https://archive.is/20070609005249/http://www.randi.org/jr/050302.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=June 9, 2007 }}</ref>
Randi has been accused of actually using "psychic powers" to perform acts such as [[spoon bending]]. According to [[James Alcock]], at a meeting where Randi was duplicating the performances of [[Uri Geller]], a professor from the [[University at Buffalo, The State University of New York|University at Buffalo]] shouted out that Randi was a fraud. Randi said: "Yes, indeed, I'm a trickster, I'm a cheat, I'm a charlatan, that's what I do for a living. Everything I've done here was by trickery." The professor shouted back: "That's not what I mean. You're a fraud because you're pretending to do these things through trickery, but you're actually using psychic powers and misleading us by not admitting it."<ref>[[#Alcock|Alcock 2001]], p. 42</ref> A similar event involved Senator [[Claiborne Pell]], a confirmed believer in psychic phenomena. When Randi personally demonstrated to Pell that he could reveal—by simple trickery—a concealed drawing that had been secretly made by the senator, Pell refused to believe that it was a trick, saying: "I think Randi may be a psychic and doesn't realize it." Randi has consistently denied having any paranormal powers or abilities.<ref>[[#Gardner|Gardner 2000]], p. 178</ref>
Randi is a member of the [[Society of American Magicians]] (SAM), the International Brotherhood of Magicians (IBM), and [[The Magic Circle (organisation)|The Magic Circle]] in the UK, holding the rank of "Member of the Inner Magic Circle with Gold Star."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://themagiccircle.co.uk/news/711-the-magic-circle-president-promotes-a-knight-a-dragon-and-student-doctor-of-magic?highlight=WyJyYW5kaSJd|title=TMC Promotions|date=January 11, 2013|accessdate=July 22, 2015|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150723074917/http://themagiccircle.co.uk/news/711-the-magic-circle-president-promotes-a-knight-a-dragon-and-student-doctor-of-magic?highlight=WyJyYW5kaSJd|archivedate=July 23, 2015|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
Randi said the hardest people to fool are not the highly educated, but children, because they are not sophisticated enough to be fooled, as they have not learned the body cues that adults have learned and which magicians take advantage of.<ref name="theesp.eu"/>
Randi is the author of ten books, among them ''[[Conjuring (book)|Conjuring]]'' (1992), a biographical history of noted magicians. The book is subtitled ''Being a Definitive History of the Venerable Arts of Sorcery, Prestidigitation, Wizardry, Deception, & Chicanery and of the Mountebanks & Scoundrels Who have Perpetrated these Subterfuges on a Bewildered Public, in short, MAGIC!'' The book's cover says that it is by "James Randi, Esq., A Contrite Rascal Once Dedicated to these Wicked Practices but Now Almost Totally Reformed". The book selects the most influential magicians and tells some of their history, often in the context of strange deaths and careers on the road. This work expanded on Randi's second book titled ''Houdini, His Life and Art''.<ref name=Milkwaukee>{{cite news |last=Bartlett |first=Kay |title=Truthful trickster |url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=RU4aAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wykEAAAAIBAJ&pg=3862,1502395 |accessdate=July 13, 2012 |agency=[[Associated Press]] |newspaper=[[Milwaukee Journal Sentinel|The Milwaukee Journal]] |date=July 13, 1981}}</ref> This illustrated work was published in 1976 and was co-authored with [[Bert Sugar]]. It focuses on the professional and private life of Houdini.<ref name="Daniel">[[#Burt|Burt 2001]], p. 192</ref>
Randi also wrote a children's book in 1989 titled ''The Magic World of the Amazing Randi'', which introduced children to magic tricks. In addition to his magic books, he has written several educational works about paranormal and pseudoscientific claims. These include biographies of Uri Geller and [[Nostradamus]] as well as reference material on other major paranormal figures. He is currently working on ''A Magician in the Laboratory'', which recounts his application of skepticism to science.<ref name="randi1" /><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/1194-teleportation-magic-established-by-science-at-last.html |title=Teleportation Magic Established By Science, At Last! |last=Randi |first=James |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=January 19, 2011}}</ref> He was a member of the all-male literary banqueting club the [[Trap Door Spiders]], which served as the basis of his good friend [[Isaac Asimov]]'s fictional group of mystery solvers, the [[Black Widowers]].<ref name="Asimov1994-120">[[#Asimov|Asimov 1994]]</ref>
Other books are ''[[Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions|Flim-Flam!]]'' (1982), ''[[The Faith Healers]]'' (1987), ''[[James Randi, Psychic Investigator]]'' (1991), ''[[Test Your ESP Potential]]'' (1982) and ''An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural'' (1995).
Randi was a regular contributor to ''[[Skeptic (U.S. magazine)|Skeptic]]'' magazine, penning the "'Twas Brillig ..." column, and also served on its editorial board. He is also a frequent contributor to ''[[Skeptical Inquirer]]'' magazine, which is published by [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry|CSI]], of which he is also a Fellow.
[[File:James_Randi_demonstrating_'psychic_surgery'_on_ITV_series_"James_Randi,_Psychic_Investigator".jpg|thumb|right|Randi using sleight of hand to duplicate "[[psychic surgery]]" on his [[Open Media]] series for [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] in 1991]]
Randi gained the international spotlight in 1972 when he publicly challenged the claims of [[Uri Geller]]. He accused Geller of being nothing more than a [[charlatan]] and a [[fraud]] who used standard magic tricks to accomplish his allegedly paranormal feats, and he presented his claims in the book ''[[The Truth About Uri Geller]]'' (1982).<ref name="Taft"/><ref name="Rensberger">{{cite news|first=Boyce|last=Rensberger|title=Magicians Term Israeli 'Psychic' a Fraud|newspaper=The New York Times|page=29|date=December 13, 1975}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=God's Chariot! Science Looks at the New Occult |first=Michael |last=Kernan |authorlink=Michael Kernan |newspaper=The Washington Post |date=June 11, 1978}}</ref>
Believing that it was important to get columnists and TV personalities to challenge Geller and others like him, Randi and [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry|CSICOP]] reached out in an attempt to educate them. Randi said that CSICOP had a "very substantial influence on the printed media ... in those days."<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|20:05}} During this effort, Randi made contact with [[Johnny Carson]] and discovered that he was "very much on our side. He wasn't only a comedian ... he was a great thinker."<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|21:15}} According to Randi, when he was on ''[[The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson|The Tonight Show]]'', Carson broke his usual protocol of not talking with guests before their entrance on stage, but instead would ask what Randi wanted to be emphasized in the interview. "He wanted to be aware of how he could help me."<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|21:30}}
In 1973, Geller appeared on ''The Tonight Show'', and this appearance is recounted in the ''[[Nova (American TV program)|Nova]]'' documentary "[[Secrets of the Psychics]]".<ref name="Secrets"/>{{efn|A two-minute clip of this documentary with the Geller segment has been widely circulated on the Internet since James Randi acquired permission to use it from NBC, and Carson paid for the expensive and complex transfer from the original, physically degraded, two-inch videotape recording.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-03/032307hope.html| archiveurl = http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090711011032/http%3A//www%2Erandi%2Eorg/jr/2007%2D03/032307hope%2Ehtml| archivedate = 11 July 2009| title = Swift – March 30, 2007| date=2007-03-30| accessdate = 2007-12-22}}</ref>}}{{efn|James Randi discussed obtaining the clip of Uri Geller on ''The Tonight Show''.{{citation needed|date=August 2017}}}}
In the documentary, Randi says that Carson "had been a magician himself and was skeptical" of Geller's claimed [[paranormal]] powers, so before the date of taping, Randi was asked "to help prevent any trickery". Per Randi's advice, the show prepared its own props without informing Geller, and did not let Geller or his staff "anywhere near them". When Geller joined Carson on stage, he appeared surprised that he was not going to be interviewed, but instead was expected to display his abilities using the provided articles. Geller said "This scares me" and "I'm surprised because before this program your producer came and he read me at least 40 questions you were going to ask me." Geller was unable to display any paranormal abilities, saying "I don't feel strong" and expressing his displeasure at feeling like he was being "pressed" to perform by Carson.<ref name="Secrets">{{cite episode |last=Charlson |first=Carl |title=[[Secrets of the Psychics]] |date=1993 |series=NOVA |network=PBS |time=8'25" |ref={{harvid|"Secrets of the Psychics"}}}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title= How We Got Here: The '70s|last= Frum|first= David|authorlink= David Frum|year= 2000|publisher= Basic Books|location= New York, New York|isbn= 978-0-465-04195-4|page= [https://archive.org/details/howwegothere70sd00frum/page/132 132]|url= https://archive.org/details/howwegothere70sd00frum/page/132}}</ref> According to Adam Higginbotham's Nov. 7, 2014 article in the ''New York Times'':
{{quote|text=The result was a legendary immolation, in which Geller offered up flustered excuses to his host as his abilities failed him again and again. "I sat there for 22 minutes, humiliated," Geller told me, when I spoke to him in September. "I went back to my hotel, devastated. I was about to pack up the next day and go back to Tel Aviv. I thought, That's it — I'm destroyed."{{r|Higginbotham}}}}
However, this appearance on ''The Tonight Show'', which Carson and Randi had orchestrated to debunk Geller's claimed abilities, backfired. According to Higginbotham,
{{quote|text=To Geller's astonishment, he was immediately booked on ''[[The Merv Griffin Show]]''. He was on his way to becoming a paranormal superstar. "That Johnny Carson show made Uri Geller," Geller said. To an enthusiastically trusting public, his failure only made his gifts seem more real: if he were performing magic tricks, they would surely work every time.<ref name=Higginbotham/>}}
According to Higginbotham, this result caused Randi to realize that much more must be done to stop Geller and those like him. So in 1976, Randi approached [[Ray Hyman]], a psychologist who had observed the tests of Geller's ability at Stanford and thought them slipshod, and suggested they create an organization dedicated to combating pseudoscience. Later that same year, together with [[Martin Gardner]], a ''Scientific American'' columnist whose writing had helped hone Hyman's and Randi's skepticism, they formed the [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry|Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal]] (CSICOP).<ref name=Higginbotham/>
Using donations and sales of their magazine, ''[[Skeptical Inquirer]]'', they and secular humanist philosopher [[Paul Kurtz]] took seats on the executive board, with [[Isaac Asimov]] and [[Carl Sagan]] joining as founding members. Randi traveled the world on behalf of CSICOP, becoming its public face, and according to Hyman, the face of the skeptical movement.{{r|Higginbotham}}
András G. Pintér, producer and co-host of the [[European Skeptics Podcast]] called Randi the grandfather of European skepticism by virtue of Randi "playing a role in kickstarting several European organizations."<ref name="theesp.eu">{{cite web|url=http://theesp.eu/podcast_archive/episode_016_james_randi.html|title=Episode #016, feat. James "The Amaz!ng" Randi - The European Skeptics Podcast|date=March 30, 2016|accessdate=September 3, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170807021751/http://theesp.eu/podcast_archive/episode_016_james_randi.html|archivedate=August 7, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
Geller sued Randi and CSICOP for $15 million in 1991 and lost.<ref name=Higginbotham/><ref name="Petit">{{cite news|first=Charles|last=Petit|title=Bay Magicians Back Uri Geller's Critic|work=[[San Francisco Chronicle]]|page=A27|date=May 23, 1991}}</ref> Geller's suit against CSICOP was thrown out in 1995, and he was ordered to pay $120,000 for filing a frivolous lawsuit.<ref name="Levy">{{cite news|first=Michael|last=Levy|url=http://docs.newsbank.com/g/GooglePM/BN/lib00142,0EAF986A6473E6E1.html|title=Group Gets $40,000 From 'psychic' Geller Starts Paying Debunkers $120,000|work=[[The Buffalo News]]|date=March 13, 1995|accessdate=December 29, 2007}}</ref> The legal costs Randi incurred used almost all of a $272,000 [[MacArthur Foundation]] grant awarded to Randi in 1986 for his work.<ref name=Higginbotham/> Randi also dismissed Geller's claims that he was capable of the kind of [[Nensha|psychic photography]] made famous by the case of [[Ted Serios]]. It is a matter, Randi argues, of trick photography using a simple hand-held optical device.<ref name="Carroll">[[#Carroll|Carroll 2003]], [https://books.google.com/books?id=6FPqDFx40vYC&pg=PA313 p. 313]</ref> During the period of Geller's legal dispute, CSICOP's leadership, wanting to avoid becoming a target of Geller's litigation, demanded that Randi refrain from commenting on Geller. Randi refused and resigned, though he has maintained a respectful relationship with the group, which in 2006 changed its name to the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). In 2010, Randi was one of 16 new CSI fellows elected by its board.<ref name=Higginbotham/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.csicop.org/about/csi_fellows_and_staff/ |title=CSI Fellows and Staff – CSI |website=[[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry]] |publisher=[[Center for Inquiry]] |location=Amherst, NY |accessdate=July 23, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130714111426/http://www.csicop.org/about/csi_fellows_and_staff/ |archivedate=July 14, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
Randi has gone on to write many articles criticizing beliefs and claims regarding the paranormal.<ref name="jref-randi-bio">{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/bio.html |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090710002246/http://www.randi.org/jr/bio.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 10, 2009 |title=About James Randi |publisher=JREF |accessdate=December 29, 2007}}</ref> He has also demonstrated flaws in studies suggesting the existence of paranormal phenomena; in his [[Project Alpha]] hoax, Randi successfully planted two fake psychics in a privately funded psychic research experiment.<ref>{{cite news |title=Magicians Score a Hit On Scientific Researchers |first=Philip J. |last=Hilts |newspaper=The Washington Post |page=First Section; A1 |date=March 1, 1983}}</ref> The hoax became a scandal and demonstrated the shortcomings of many paranormal research projects at the university level.
Randi has appeared on numerous TV shows, sometimes to directly debunk the claimed abilities of fellow guests. In a 1981 appearance on ''[[That's My Line]]'', Randi appeared opposite claimed psychic [[James Hydrick]], who said that he could move objects with his mind and appeared to demonstrate this claim on live television by turning a page in a telephone book without touching it.<ref name="lookatpast">{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-09/092206bad.html#i11 |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090709213130/http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-09/092206bad.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 9, 2009 |title=A Look at the Past |last=Randi |first=James |date=September 22, 2006 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Newsletter |accessdate=September 20, 2013}}</ref> Randi, having determined that Hydrick was surreptitiously blowing on the book, arranged [[Foam peanut|foam packaging peanuts]] on the table in front of the telephone book for the demonstration. This prevented Hydrick from demonstrating his abilities, which would have been exposed when the blowing moved the packaging.<ref>{{citation |title=James Randi exposes James Hydrick |via=YouTube}}</ref> Randi writes that, eventually, Hydrick "confessed everything".<ref name="lookatpast" />
[[File:Randi 1983.jpg|thumb|left|Randi speaks at the 1983 [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry|CSICOP]] Conference in Buffalo, New York]]
Randi was awarded a [[John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation|MacArthur Foundation]] [[MacArthur Fellows Program|Fellowship]] in 1986. The fellowship's five-year $272,000 grant helped support Randi's investigations of faith healers, including [[W. V. Grant]], [[Ernest Angley]], and [[Peter Popoff]], whom Randi first exposed on ''The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson'' in February 1986. Hearing about his investigation of Popoff, Carson invited Randi onto his show without seeing the evidence he was going to reveal. Carson appeared stunned after Randi showed a brief video segment from one of Popoff's broadcasts showing him calling out a woman in the audience, revealed personal information about her that he claimed came from God, and then performed a laying-on-of-hands healing to drive the devil from her body. Randi then replayed the video, but with some of the sound dubbed in that he and his investigating team captured during the event using a radio scanner and recorder. Their scanner had detected the radio frequency Popoff's wife Elizabeth was using backstage to broadcast directions and information to a miniature radio receiver hidden in Popoff's left ear. That information had been gathered by Popoff's assistants, who had handed out "prayer cards" to the audience before the show, instructing them to write down all the information Popoff would need to pray for them.<ref name="Faith Healers">[[#Randi 1987|Randi 1987]], pp. 139–181</ref><ref name="Heavenly Messages">{{cite news |title=Skeptics' Revelations: Faith Healer Receives 'Heavenly' Messages Via Electronic Receiver, Debunkers Charge |first=John |last=Dart |url=http://articles.latimes.com/1986-05-11/local/me-5518_1_faith-healer |newspaper=[[Los Angeles Times]] |date=May 11, 1986 |accessdate=August 18, 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121015155733/http://articles.latimes.com/1986-05-11/local/me-5518_1_faith-healer |archivedate=October 15, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="Randi Debunks Popoff">{{citation |title=James Randi Debunks Peter Popoff Faith Healer |via=YouTube}}</ref>
The news coverage generated by Randi's exposé on ''The Tonight Show'' led to many TV stations dropping Popoff's show, eventually forcing him into bankruptcy in September 1987.<ref name="Bankruptcy">{{cite news |title=Evangelist Popoff Off Air, Files Bankruptcy Petitions |url=http://articles.latimes.com/1987-09-26/local/me-2461_1_peter-popoff |first=John |last=Dart |newspaper=Los Angeles Times |date=September 26, 1987 |accessdate=August 18, 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160305090833/http://articles.latimes.com/1987-09-26/local/me-2461_1_peter-popoff |archivedate=March 5, 2016 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=bIxgDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PT316#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=The Workshop and the World: What Ten Thinkers Can Teach Us About Science and Authority|last=Crease|first=Robert P.|date=2019|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|isbn=9780393292442|location=|pages=|quote=The magician James Randi once exposed a popular televangelist by playing recordings of secret transmissions between an audience plant and the televangelist. The televangelist declared bankruptcy the next year.|author-link=Robert P. Crease}}</ref> However, the televangelist returned soon after with faith-healing infomercials that reportedly attracted more than $23 million in 2005 from viewers sending in money for promised healing and prosperity. The Canadian Centre for Inquiry's ''Think Again! TV'' documented one of Popoff's more recent performances before a large audience who gathered in [[Toronto]] on May 26, 2011, hoping to be saved from illness and poverty.<ref name="Think Again!">{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZo0DLKriDY |title=Secret Footage of 'Faith Healer' Peter Popoff in Toronto May 2011 |via=YouTube |date=June 7, 2011 |work=Think Again! TV |publisher=Centre for Inquiry Canada}}</ref>
In February 1988, Randi tested the gullibility of the media by perpetrating a hoax of his own. By teaming up with Australia's ''[[60 Minutes (Australian TV program)|60 Minutes]]'' program and by releasing a fake press package, he built up publicity for a "[[Mediumship|spirit channeler]]" named Carlos,<ref name=Higginbotham/> who was actually artist José Alvarez, Randi's partner. While performing as Carlos, Alvarez was prompted by Randi using sophisticated radio equipment. According to the ''60 Minutes'' program on the Carlos hoax, "it was claimed that Alvarez would not have had the audience he did at the Opera House (and the potential sales therefrom) had the media coverage been more aggressive (and factual)", though an analysis by ''[[Australian Skeptics|The Skeptic]]'''s Tim Mendham concluded that, while the media coverage of Alvarez's appearances was not credulous, the hoax "at least showed that they could benefit by being a touch more sceptical".<ref>{{cite journal |last=Mendham |first=Tim |year=1988 |title=The Carlos Hoax |journal=The Skeptic |volume=8 |issue=1 |accessdate=April 19, 2013 |issn=0726-9897 |oclc=53994493 |url=http://www.skeptics.com.au/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/theskeptic/2ndcoming/skepticism.pdf |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130419063417/http://www.skeptics.com.au/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/theskeptic/2ndcoming/skepticism.pdf |archivedate=April 19, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> The hoax was exposed on ''60 Minutes Australia''; "Carlos" and Randi explained how they had pulled it off.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.skepdic.com/carlos.html |title='Carlos' hoax |work=The Skeptic's Dictionary |publisher=[[Robert Todd Carroll]] |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090605100136/http://skepdic.com/carlos.html |archivedate=June 5, 2009 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite interview |last=Randi |first=James |interviewer=Paul Willis |title=James Randi and the Great Carlos |work=The Correx Archives |publisher=[[Australian Broadcasting Corporation]] |date=May 7, 1998 |url=http://www.abc.net.au/science/correx/archives/randi4.htm |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090715171756/http://www.abc.net.au/science/correx/archives/randi4.htm |archivedate=July 15, 2009 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
In his book ''The Faith Healers'', Randi wrote that his anger and relentlessness arose from compassion for the victims of fraud. Randi has also been critical of [[João de Deus (medium)|João de Deus]] (John of God), a self-proclaimed [[Psychic surgery|psychic surgeon]] who has received international attention.<ref name="JohnofGod">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=February 18, 2005 |title=The ABC-TV Infomercial for John of God |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=November 18, 2006 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/021805a.html |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090710000748/http://www.randi.org/jr/021805a.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 10, 2009 }}</ref> Randi observed, referring to psychic surgery, "To any experienced conjurer, the methods by which these seeming miracles are produced are very obvious."<ref>[[#Randi 1995|Randi 1995]], [http://www.randi.org/encyclopedia/psychic%20surgery.html "psychic surgery"]</ref>
[[Image:PipSmith DickSmith Klass Sheaffer JohnMerrell Randi.jpg|thumb|250px|right| Randi with (from left) Pip Smith, Dick Smith, [[Philip J. Klass]] (standing), [[Robert Sheaffer]] and John Merrell, at the 1983 CSICOP Conference in Buffalo, NY]]
In 1982, Randi verified the abilities of [[Arthur Lintgen]], a Philadelphia doctor, who was able to identify the classical music recorded on a [[Gramophone record|vinyl LP]] solely by examining the grooves on the record. However, Lintgen did not claim to have any paranormal ability, merely knowledge of the way that the groove forms patterns on particular recordings.<ref name="Randi_2002">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=November 1, 2002 |title=Reading Records |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/110102.html |archive-url=https://archive.is/20100620232826/http://www.randi.org/jr/110102.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=June 20, 2010 |accessdate=July 11, 2010}}</ref>
In 1988, [[John Maddox]], editor of the prominent science journal ''Nature'', asked Randi to join the supervision and observation of the [[homeopathy]] experiments conducted by [[Jacques Benveniste]]'s team. Once Randi's stricter protocol for the experiment was in place, the positive results could not be reproduced.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Maddox|first=John|last2=Randi|first2=James|last3=Stewart|first3=Walter W.|date=1988-07-28|title="High-dilution" experiments a delusion|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/334287a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=334|issue=6180|pages=287–290|doi=10.1038/334287a0|issn=1476-4687|via=}}</ref>
[[Image:JREF TAM9 Beard Photo.jpg|thumb|The James Randi Beard Photo, taken at The JREF [[The Amazing Meeting|Amaz!ng Meeting]] 9 ("TAM 9 From Outer Space") July 16, 2011]]
James Randi stated that [[Daniel Dunglas Home]], who could allegedly play an accordion that was locked in a cage without touching it, was caught cheating on a few occasions, but the incidents were never made public. He also stated that the actual instrument in use was a [[Harmonica|one-octave mouth organ]] concealed under Home's large moustache and that other one-octave mouth organs were found in Home's belongings after his death.<ref>[[#Randi 1995|Randi 1995]], [http://www.randi.org/encyclopedia/Home,%20Daniel%20Dunglas.html "Home, Daniel Dunglas"]</ref> According to Randi, author [[William Lindsay Gresham]] told Randi "around 1960" that he had seen these mouth organs in the Home collection at the [[Society for Psychical Research]] (SPR). Eric J. Dingwall, who catalogued Home's collection on its arrival at the SPR does not record the presence of the mouth organs. According to Peter Lamont, the author of an extensive Home biography, "It is unlikely Dingwall would have missed these or did not make them public."<ref name="Lamont302">[[#Lamont|Lamont 2005]], p. 302</ref>The fraudulent medium [[Henry Slade]] also played an accordion while held with one hand under a table.<ref>[[Chung Ling Soo]]. (1898) ''Slate Writing and Kindred Phenomena''. Munn & Company. Scientific American, New York City. pp. 105-106</ref> Slade and Home played the same pieces. They had at one time lived near each other in the U.S.A. The magician [[Chung Ling Soo]] exposed how Slade had performed the trick.<ref>[[Chung Ling Soo]]. (1898). [https://archive.org/stream/spiritslatewriti00sooc#page/105/mode/2up ''Spirit Slate Writing and Kindred Phenomena]''. Munn & Company. pp. 105-106. "Dr. Henry Slade was, of course, identified and recognized as the principal slate-writing medium, but at various times he presented other phenomena, one of which was the playing of an accordion while held in one hand under the table. The accordion was taken by him from the table with his right hand, at the end containing the strap, the keys or notes at the other end being away from him. He thus held the accordion beneath the table, and his left hand was laid on top of the table, where it was always in plain view. Nevertheless, the accordion was heard to give forth melodious tunes, and at the conclusion was brought up on top of the table as held originally; the whole dodge consisting in turning the accordion end for end as it went under the table. The strap end being now downward, and held between the legs, the medium's hand grasped the keyboard end, and worked the bellows and keys, holding the accordion firmly with the legs and working the hand, not with an arm movement, but mostly by a simple wrist movement. Of course, at the conclusion, the hand grasped the accordion at the strap end, and brought it up in this condition. Sometimes an accordion is tied with strings and sealed so the bellows cannot be worked. This is for the dark séance. Even in this condition the accordion is played by inserting a tube in the air-hole or valve and by the medium's using his lungs as bellows."</ref>
Randi distinguishes between pseudoscience and [[Pseudoscience|crackpot science]]. He regards most of [[parapsychology]] as pseudoscience because of the way in which it is approached and conducted, but nonetheless sees it as a legitimate subject that "should be pursued", and from which real scientific discoveries may develop.<ref name="Terzian-Bilson">[[#Randi 1997|Randi 1997]], [https://books.google.com/books?id=_mo4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA170 p. 170]</ref> Randi regards crackpot science as "equally wrong" as pseudoscience, but with no scientific pretensions.<ref>{{cite journal |editor-last=Ripin |editor-first=Barrett H. |date=June 1995 |title=Trio Takes Aim Against Spread of Pseudo-Science |journal=APS News |volume=4 |issue=6 |issn=1058-8132 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url=http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/199506/pseudo-science.cfm |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131228153120/http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/199506/pseudo-science.cfm |archivedate=December 28, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
Despite multiple debunkings, Randi didn't like to be called a "debunker", preferring to call himself a "skeptic" or an "investigator”:
{{quote|text=(...) if you go into a situation calling yourself a debunker then it is as if you have prejudged the topic. It's not neutral or scientific, and it can turn people against you.<ref name=westdefense>{{cite web |last1=West |first1=Mick |authorlink=Mick West|title=In Defense of Debunkers |url=https://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/show/in_defense_of_debunkers |website=CSI |accessdate=12 March 2019 |date=13 June 2018}}</ref>}}
Skeptics and magicians [[Penn & Teller]] credit Randi and his career as a skeptic for their own careers. During an interview at [[The Amazing Meeting|TAM! 2012]], Penn stated that ''[[Flim-Flam!]]'' was an early influence on him, and said "If not for Randi there would not be Penn & Teller as we are today."<ref name=Penn>{{cite web|title="38 Years of Magic and B.S.: A Conversation with Penn & Teller" - TAM 2012|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=99_upx8URLI|website=Youtube.com|publisher=James Randi Foundation|accessdate=25 August 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130906194746/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=99_upx8URLI|archivedate=September 6, 2013|df=mdy-all}}</ref>{{rp|1:40}} He went on to say "Outside of my family ... no one is more important in my life. Randi is everything to me."<ref name=Penn/>{{rp|5:34}}
At the [[NECSS]] skeptic conference in 2017, Randi was asked by [[George Hrab]] what a "'skeptic coming of age ceremony' would look like" and Randi talked about what it was like as a child to learn about the speed of light and how that felt like he was looking into the past. Randi stated "More kids need to be stunned".<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Dobler |first1=Russ |title=NECSS 2017: Skepticism Making Connections in Midtown Manhattan |journal=Skeptical Inquirer |date=2017 |volume=41 |issue=6 |pages=8–9 }}</ref>
At [[The Amaz!ng Meeting]] in 2011 (TAM 9) the [[Independent Investigations Group]] (IIG) organised a tribute to James Randi. The group gathered together with other attendees, put on fake white beards, and posed for a large group photo with Randi. At the [[CSICon]] in 2017, in absence of Randi, the IIG organised another group photo with leftover beards from the 2011 photo. After Randi was sent the photo, he replied, "I'm always very touched by any such expression. This is certainly no exception. You have my sincere gratitude. I suspect, however that a couple of those beards were fake. But I'm in a forgiving mood at the moment. I'm frankly very touched. I'll see you at the next CSICon. Thank you all."<ref>{{cite web |last1=Gerbic |first1=Susan |authorlink=Susan Gerbic |title=CSICon Photo Tribute to James Randi |url=https://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/show/csicon_photo_tribute_to_james_randi |website=www.csicop.org |accessdate=6 March 2019}}</ref>
===''Exploring Psychic Powers ... Live'' television show===
''Exploring Psychic Powers ... Live'' was a two-hour television special aired live on June 7, 1989, wherein Randi examined several people claiming psychic powers. Hosted by actor [[Bill Bixby]], the program offered $100,000 (Randi's $10,000 prize plus $90,000 put up by the show's [[Broadcast syndication|syndicator]], [[Lexington Broadcast Services Company|LBS Communications, Inc.]]<ref>{{cite podcast |url=http://clear-light.msspro.com/files/Randi_2003-Jul-31.wav |title=Randi_2003-Jul-31.wav |website=JREF Internet Broadcast Archive|host=Randi, James |format=[[WAV]] |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20030907063148/http://clear-light.msspro.com/files/Randi_2003-Jul-31.wav |archivedate=September 7, 2003 |date=July 31, 2003 |time=0:33:19 |accessdate=November 28, 2006}}</ref>) to anyone who could demonstrate genuine psychic powers.
* An [[astrologer]], Joseph Meriwether, claimed that he was able to ascertain a person's [[astrological sign]] after talking with them for a few minutes. He was presented with twelve people, one at a time, each with a different astrological sign. They could not tell Meriwether their astrological sign or birth date, nor could they wear anything that would indicate it. After Meriwether talked to them, he had them go and sit in front of the astrological sign that he thought was theirs. By agreement, Meriwether needed to get ten of the 12 correct, to win. He got none correct.
* The next psychic, Barbara Martin, claimed to be able to read [[aura (paranormal)|auras]] around people, claiming that auras were visible at least five inches above each person. She selected ten people from a group of volunteers who she said had clearly visible auras. On stage were erected ten screens, numbered ''1'' through ''10'', just tall enough to hide the volunteer while not hiding their aura. Unseen by Martin, some of the volunteers positioned themselves behind different screens, then she was invited to predict which screens hid volunteers by seeing their aura above. Since random guessing would be expected to get about five correct, Martin needed to get eight of the ten right. She stated that she saw an aura over all ten screens, but people were behind only four of the screens.
* A [[Dowsing|dowser]], Forrest Bayes, claimed that he could detect water, even in a bottle inside a sealed cardboard box. He was shown twenty boxes and asked to indicate which boxes contained a water bottle. He selected eight of the boxes, which he said contained water, but it turned out that only five of the twenty contained water. Of the eight selected boxes, only one was revealed to contain water and one contained sand. It was not revealed whether any of the remaining six boxes contained water.
* A [[Psychometry (paranormal)|psychometric psychic]], Sharon McLaren-Straz, claimed to be able to receive personal information about the owner of an object by handling the object itself. In order to avoid ambiguous statements, the psychic agreed to be presented with both a watch and a key from each of twelve different people. She was to match keys and watches to each owner. According to the prior agreement, she had to match at least nine out of the twelve sets, but she succeeded in only two.
* Professional crystal healer Valerie Swan attempted to use [[Extrasensory perception|ESP]] to identify 250 [[Zener cards]], guessing which of the five symbols was on each one. Random guessing should have resulted in about fifty correct guesses, so it was agreed in advance that Swan had to be right on at least eighty-two cards in order to demonstrate an ability greater than chance. However, she was able to get only fifty predictions correct, which is no better than random guessing.<ref>[[#Polidoro|Polidoro 2003]], pp. 19–24</ref>
===James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF)===
{{main|James Randi Educational Foundation}}
In 1996, Randi established the [[James Randi Educational Foundation]]. Randi and his colleagues publish in JREF's blog, ''Swift''. Topics have included the interesting mathematics of the [[one-seventh area triangle]], a classic geometric puzzle. In his weekly commentary, Randi often gives examples of what he considers the nonsense that he deals with every day.<ref name="si-fakers">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=July 2005 |title=Fakers and Innocents |journal=[[Skeptical Inquirer]] |volume=29 |issue=4 |issn=0194-6730 |accessdate=October 29, 2006 |url=http://www.csicop.org/si/2005-07/randi.html |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061027131225/http://www.csicop.org/si/2005-07/randi.html |archivedate=October 27, 2006}}</ref>
Beginning in 2003, the JREF annually hosted [[The Amaz!ng Meeting]], a gathering of [[scientist]]s, [[skeptic]]s, and [[atheist]]s. The last meeting was in 2015, coinciding with Randi's retirement from the JREF.<ref name="frustrated">{{Cite web |url=https://skeptoid.com/blog/2016/03/19/are-you-frustrated-that-tam-the-jref-are-no-more-and-the-skeptical-community-has-disintegrated/ |title=Are you frustrated that TAM & the JREF are no more, and the skeptical community has disintegrated? |author=Brian Dunning |work=Skeptoid blog |date=March 19, 2016 |accessdate=October 25, 2016|author-link=Brian Dunning (author) }}</ref><ref name="HallDyer">{{Cite web |url=http://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/show/from_tam_to_csicon_an_interview_with_ray_hall_and_katie_dyer |title=From TAM to CSICon: An Interview with Ray Hall and Katie Dyer |author=Susan Gerbic |work=CSI website |publisher=CSI |date=September 22, 2016 |accessdate=October 25, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161025120620/http://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/show/from_tam_to_csicon_an_interview_with_ray_hall_and_katie_dyer |archivedate=October 25, 2016 |df=mdy-all |author-link=Susan Gerbic }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author1=Chip Denman, [[Rick Adams (Internet pioneer)|Rick Adams]]|title=JREF Status|url=http://web.randi.org/home/jref-status|accessdate=September 25, 2015|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170830152145/http://web.randi.org/home/jref-status|archivedate=August 30, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
[[File:James Randi with Skull Cane 2014.jpg|thumb|right|James Randi with Skull Cane 2014]]
Randi began a series of conferences known as "The Amazing Meeting" (TAM) which quickly became the largest gathering of [[Skepticism|skeptics]] in the world, drawing audiences from Asia, Europe, South America, and the UK. It also attracted a large percentage of younger attendees.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.amazingmeeting.com/TAM2012/about/|title=The Amaz!ng Meeting 2012: About|access-date=September 29, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130305073423/http://www.amazingmeeting.com/TAM2012/about/|archivedate=March 5, 2013|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last=Frazier |first=Kendrick |authorlink=Kendrick Frazier |date=March 2015 |title=Organized Skepticism: Four Decades ... and Today |url=http://www.csicop.org/si/show/organized_skepticism_four_decades_..._and_today |journal=Skeptical Inquirer |volume=39 |issue=2 |accessdate=October 25, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161003140636/http://www.csicop.org/si/show/organized_skepticism_four_decades_..._and_today |archivedate=October 3, 2016 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi has been regularly featured on many [[podcast]]s, including The Skeptics Society's official podcast ''[[Skepticality]]''<ref name="skepticality10">{{cite podcast |url=http://www.skepticality.com/the-james-randi-educational-foundation/ |title=#10 The James Randi Educational Foundation |website=[[Skepticality]] |publisher=[[The Skeptics Society]] |location=Altadena, CA |date=June 28, 2005 |last1=Swoopy |authorlink1=Robynn McCarthy |last2=Colanduno |first2=Derek |authorlink2=Derek Colanduno |accessdate=November 27, 2011 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110708082512/http://www.skepticality.com/the-james-randi-educational-foundation/ |archivedate=July 8, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="skepticality67a">{{cite podcast |url=http://www.skepticality.com/xmas-2007/ |title=#67a Xmas 2007 |website=Skepticality |publisher=The Skeptics Society |location=Altadena, CA |date=December 22, 2007 |last1=Swoopy |last2=Colanduno |first2=Derek |accessdate=November 27, 2011 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110708084226/http://www.skepticality.com/xmas-2007/ |archivedate=July 8, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> and the [[Center for Inquiry]]'s official podcast ''[[Point of Inquiry]]''.<ref name="Point of Inquiry">{{cite web|url=http://www.pointofinquiry.org/|title=Point of Inquiry|accessdate=June 30, 2006|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060702003307/http://www.pointofinquiry.org/|archivedate=July 2, 2006|df=mdy-all}}</ref> From September 2006 onwards, he has occasionally contributed to ''[[The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe]]'' podcast with a column titled "Randi Speaks."<ref name="sg2u">{{cite web|url=http://theskepticsguide.org/|title=The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe|accessdate=October 29, 2006|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061107095620/http://www.theskepticsguide.org/|archivedate=November 7, 2006|df=mdy-all}}</ref> In addition, ''The Amazing Show'' is a podcast in which Randi shares various anecdotes in an interview format.<ref name="AmazingShow">{{cite web | url=http://itricks.com/randishow/ | title=The Amazing Show starring James Randi | publisher=itricks.com | accessdate=January 22, 2014 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140201190118/http://itricks.com/randishow/ | archivedate=February 1, 2014 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
In 2014, Part2Filmworks released ''[[An Honest Liar]]'', a [[feature film]] [[documentary]], written by Tyler Measom and Greg O'Toole, and directed and produced by Measom and Justin Weinstein.<ref name=YahooMovies>[https://www.yahoo.com/movies/film/an-honest-liar "An Honest Liar"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140906043033/https://www.yahoo.com/movies/film/an-honest-liar |date=September 6, 2014 }}. [[Yahoo! Movies]]. Retrieved September 5, 2014.</ref> The film, which was funded through [[Kickstarter]],<ref name=Kickstarter>[https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/220588101/an-honest-liar-the-amazing-randi-story "An Honest Liar: The Amazing Randi Story"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140726065651/https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/220588101/an-honest-liar-the-amazing-randi-story |date=July 26, 2014 }}. [[Kickstarter]]. Retrieved September 5, 2014.</ref> focuses on Randi's life, his investigations, and his relationship with longtime partner José Alvarez (born Deyvi Orangel Peña Arteaga), to whom he was married in 2013.<ref name=YahooMovies/> The film was screened at the [[Tribeca Film Festival]],<ref>Barsanti, Chris (April 25, 2014). [http://www.popmatters.com/review/181139-tribeca-film-festival-2014-an-honest-liar-in-order-of-disappearance/ "Tribeca Film Festival 2014: 'An Honest Liar' + 'In Order of Disappearance'"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140428140850/http://www.popmatters.com/review/181139-tribeca-film-festival-2014-an-honest-liar-in-order-of-disappearance/ |date=April 28, 2014 }}. ''PopMatters''.</ref> at Toronto's Hot Docs film festival,<ref>Teplitsky, Ariel (May 1, 2014). [https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/movies/2014/05/01/worth_a_look_an_honest_liar.html "Worth a look: An Honest Liar"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170929233145/https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/movies/2014/05/01/worth_a_look_an_honest_liar.html |date=September 29, 2017 }}. ''[[Toronto Star]]''.</ref> and at the June 2014 [[AFI Docs Festival]] in [[Silver Spring, Maryland]] and [[Washington, D.C.]], where it won the Audience Award for Best Feature. It also received positive reviews from critics.<ref name=HollywoodReporter>Rooney, David (June 30, 2014). [http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/an-honest-liar-provincetown-review-715950 "'An Honest Liar': Provincetown Review"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140906092258/http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/an-honest-liar-provincetown-review-715950 |date=September 6, 2014 }}. ''[[The Hollywood Reporter]]''.</ref><ref name=RottenTomatoes>[http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/an_honest_liar/ "An Honest Liar (2014)"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140906043834/http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/an_honest_liar/ |date=September 6, 2014 }}. [[Rotten Tomatoes]]. Retrieved September 5, 2014.</ref> The film was featured on the PBS ''[[Independent Lens]]'' series, shown in the U.S. and Canada, on March 28, 2016.<ref>[https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/television/2016/03/28/torontos-james-the-amazing-randi-profiled-in-an-honest-liar.html Toronto's James (The Amazing) Randi profiled in ''An Honest Liar''.] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170929233146/https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/television/2016/03/28/torontos-james-the-amazing-randi-profiled-in-an-honest-liar.html |date=September 29, 2017 }}, ''[[Toronto Star]]'', Bill Brioux, March 28, 2016. Retirieved 29 March 2016.</ref>
In 2017, Randi appeared in animated form on Holy Koolaid, in which he discussed the challenge of finding the balance between connecting sincerely with his audience and at the same time tricking/fooling them with an artful ruse and indicated that this is a balance many magicians struggle with.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.holykoolaid.com/magic-and-skepticism-james-randi/|title=Magician James Randi on the Importance of Skepticism|date=2017-09-02|work=Holy Koolaid|access-date=2017-09-02|language=en-US|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170902092404/http://www.holykoolaid.com/magic-and-skepticism-james-randi/|archivedate=September 2, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
Since 2013, Randi has been listed on the Advisory Council of the [[National Center for Science Education]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://ncse.com/about/advisory-council |title=Advisory Council |website=ncse.com |publisher=[[National Center for Science Education]] |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130810112828/https://ncse.com/about/advisory-council |archivedate=2013-08-10 |accessdate=2018-10-30|date=2008-07-15 }}</ref>
==Views on religion==
Randi's parents were members of the [[Anglican Church]] but rarely attended services.<ref name="MTS">{{cite web | url=http://meettheskeptics.libsyn.com/webpage/2010 | title=MTS: Meet James Randi | work=Meet the Skeptics! | date=September 13, 2010 | accessdate=January 22, 2014 | author=Brown, Christopher | url-status=dead | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140908065521/http://meettheskeptics.libsyn.com/webpage/2010 | archivedate=September 8, 2014 | df=mdy-all }}</ref> He attended [[Sunday School]] at St. Cuthbert's Church in [[Toronto]] a few times as a child, but he independently decided to stop going when he was not answered when he asked for proof of the teachings of the Church.<ref name=CSICon/>{{rp|24:40}}{{efn| Regarding his separation from religious training, Randi says that his statements in Sunday school such as "That sounded very unlikely." regarding contradictory and dubious biblical claims, were met with unsatisfactory answers, such as "It's in the Bible. It's in the holy book of God." He was given a note for his parents stating "Your boy Randi ... is not welcome at St. Cuthberts as he asks too many questions and he interrupts the teachers." <ref name=CSICon/>{{rp|24:40}}}}<ref>{{Citation|last=Holy Koolaid|title=The Magician James Randi on the Importance of Skepticism|date=2017-08-31|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZkfNc6TEAQ|accessdate=2017-09-02|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705214436/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZkfNc6TEAQ|archivedate=July 5, 2018|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
In his essay "Why I Deny Religion, How Silly and Fantastic It Is, and Why I'm a Dedicated and Vociferous [[Brights movement|Bright]]", Randi, who identifies himself as an [[atheist]],<ref name="No Religion">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=August 5, 2005 |title=Our Stance on Atheism |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=January 27, 2011 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/080505potential.html#14 |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090710051137/http://www.randi.org/jr/080505potential.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 10, 2009 }}</ref> opined that many accounts in religious texts, including the [[Virgin birth of Jesus|virgin birth]], the miracles of [[Jesus|Jesus Christ]], and the parting of the Red Sea by [[Moses]], are not believable. Randi refers to the [[Mary (mother of Jesus)|Virgin Mary]] as being "impregnated by a ghost of some sort, and as a result produced a son who could walk on water, raise the dead, turn water into wine, and multiply loaves of bread and fishes" and questions how [[Adam and Eve]] "could have two sons, one of whom killed the other, and yet managed to populate the Earth without committing incest". He wrote that, compared to the Bible, "''The Wizard of Oz'' is more believable. And much more fun."<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=July 25, 2003 |title=Why I Deny Religion, How Silly and Fantastic It Is, and Why I'm a Dedicated and Vociferous Bright |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/072503.html |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20091007191524/http://www.randi.org/jr/072503.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=October 7, 2009 }}</ref>
Clarifying his view of atheism, Randi wrote "I've said it before: there are two sorts of atheists. One sort claims that there is no deity, the other claims that there is no evidence that proves the existence of a deity; I belong to the latter group, because if I were to claim that no god exists, I would have to produce evidence to establish that claim, and I cannot. Religious persons have by far the easier position; they say they believe in a deity because that's their preference, and they've read it in a book. That's their right."<ref name="No Religion"/>
In ''An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural'' (1995), he examines various spiritual practices skeptically. Of the meditation techniques of [[Prem Rawat|Guru Maharaj Ji]], he writes "Only the very naive were convinced that they had been let in on some sort of celestial secret."<ref>[[#Randi 1995|Randi 1995]], [http://www.randi.org/encyclopedia/Maharaj%20Ji.html "Maharaj Ji"]</ref> In 2003, he was one of the signers of the [[Humanism and Its Aspirations|Humanist Manifesto]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.americanhumanist.org/Humanism/Humanist_Manifesto_III/Notable_Signers |title=Notable Signers |work=Humanism and Its Aspirations |publisher=[[American Humanist Association]] |location=Washington, D.C. |accessdate=September 28, 2012 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121005105825/http://www.americanhumanist.org/Humanism/Humanist_Manifesto_III/Notable_Signers |archivedate=October 5, 2012 }}</ref>
In a discussion with [[Kendrick Frazier]] at [[CSICon|CSICon 2016]], Randi stated "I think that a belief in a deity is ... an unprovable claim ... and a rather ridiculous claim. It is an easy way out to explain things to which we have no answer."<ref name = CSICon>{{cite web|title=A Conversation with James Randi|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZQNuw2jjzg&t=1s|website=YouTube |publisher=Center For Inquiry|accessdate=25 August 2017}}</ref>{{rp|7:05}} He then summarized his current concern with religious belief as follows:
{{quote|text=A belief in a god is one of the most damaging things that infests humanity at this particular moment in history.<ref name = CSICon/>{{rp|7:40}}}}
==One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge==
{{Main|One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge}}
The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) offered a prize of US$1,000,000 to anyone able to demonstrate a supernatural ability under [[Science|scientific]] testing criteria agreed to by both sides. Based on the paranormal challenges of [[John Nevil Maskelyne]] and [[Houdini]], the foundation began in 1996, when Randi put up $1,000 of his own money payable to anyone who could provide objective proof of the paranormal.<ref name="Poulsen">{{cite news |title=Skeptic Revamps $1M Psychic Prize |first=Kevin |last=Poulsen |authorlink=Kevin Poulsen |url=https://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72482 |work=[[Wired (magazine)|Wired]] |location=San Francisco |date=January 12, 2007 |accessdate=April 11, 2008 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080831010919/http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72482 |archivedate=August 31, 2008 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> The prize money grew to $1,000,000, and had formal published rules. No one progressed past the preliminary test, which was set up with parameters agreed to by both Randi and the applicant. He refused to accept any challengers who might suffer serious injury or death as a result of the testing.<ref>{{cite web |title=Rules and Guidelines |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/component/content/article/37-static/254-jref-challenge-faq.html |publisher=JREF |accessdate=November 28, 2012}}</ref>
On April 1, 2007, it was ruled that only persons with an established, nationally recognized media profile and the backing of a reputable academic were allowed to apply for the challenge, in order to avoid wasting JREF resources on frivolous claimants.<ref name="Poulsen"/>
On ''[[Larry King Live]]'', March 6, 2001, [[Larry King]] asked claimed medium [[Sylvia Browne]] if she would take the challenge and she agreed.<ref>{{cite interview |last1=Edward |first1=John |authorlink1=John Edward |last2=Jaroff |first2=Leon |authorlink2=Leon Jaroff |last3=Browne |first3=Sylvia |authorlink3=Sylvia Browne |last4=Van Praagh |first4=James |authorlink4=James Van Praagh |last5=Boteach |first5=Shmuley |authorlink5=Shmuley Boteach |last6=Kurtz |first6=Paul |authorlink6=Paul Kurtz |last7=Van Zandt |first7=Clint |last8=Graff |first8=Dale |interviewer=[[Larry King]] |title=Are Psychics for Real? |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0103/06/lkl.00.html |work=[[Larry King Live]] |publisher=[[CNN]] |date=March 6, 2001 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131223174627/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0103/06/lkl.00.html |archivedate=December 23, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi appeared with Browne on ''Larry King Live'' six months later, and she again appeared to accept his challenge.<ref name="CNN09032001">{{cite interview |last1=Randi |first1=James |last2=Browne |first2=Sylvia |interviewer=Larry King |title=Are Psychics Real? |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0109/03/lkl.00.html |work=Larry King Live |publisher=CNN |date=September 3, 2001 |accessdate=August 18, 2006 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061027032612/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0109/03/lkl.00.html |archivedate=October 27, 2006 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> However, according to Randi, she ultimately refused to be tested, and the Randi Foundation kept a clock on its website recording the number of weeks since Browne allegedly accepted the challenge without following through, until Browne's death in November 2013.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/sylvia/ |title=The Sylvia Browne Clock |publisher=JREF |accessdate=October 9, 2013}}</ref>
During a subsequent appearance on ''Larry King Live'' on June 5, 2001, Randi challenged [[Rosemary Altea]], another claimed medium, to undergo testing for the million dollars, but Altea refused to address the question.<ref name="AlteaLarryKing">{{cite interview |last1=Altea |first1=Rosemary |authorlink1=Rosemary Altea |last2=Randi |first2=James |interviewer=Larry King |title=Spiritual Medium Versus Paranormal Skeptic |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0106/05/lkl.00.html |work=Larry King Live |publisher=CNN |date=June 5, 2001 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130406032110/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0106/05/lkl.00.html |archivedate=April 6, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Instead Altea replied only, "I agree with what he says, that there are many, many people who claim to be spiritual mediums, they claim to talk to the dead. There are many people, we all know this. There are cheats and charlatans everywhere."<ref name="AlteaLarryKing" /> On January 26, 2007, Altea and Randi again appeared on the show, and Altea again refused to answer whether or not she would take the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge.<ref>{{cite interview |last1=Altea |first1=Rosemary |last2=Randi |first2=James |interviewer=Larry King |title=The Controversy Swirling Around Psychic Sylvia Brown and Her Inaccurate Read on a Now Famous Kidnapping Victim |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/26/lkl.01.html |work=[[Larry King Live]] |publisher=[[CNN]] |date=January 26, 2007 |accessdate=February 2, 2007 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070203080509/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/26/lkl.01.html |archivedate=February 3, 2007 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
In October 2007, claimed psychic [[John Edward]] appeared on ''Headline Prime'', hosted by [[Glenn Beck]]. When asked if he would take "''the Amazing Randi's''" challenge, Edward responded, "It's funny. I was on ''Larry King Live'' once, and they asked me the same question. And I made a joke [then], and I'll say the same thing here: Why would I allow myself to be tested by somebody who's got an adjective as a first name?"<ref>{{cite web|author=Beck, Glenn|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0610/27/gb.01.html|title=John Edward Shares Insights into His Career|publisher=CNN|date=October 27, 2006|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140407092520/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0610/27/gb.01.html|archivedate=April 7, 2014|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Beck simply allowed Edward to continue, ignoring the challenge.
Randi asked British businessman Jim McCormick, the inventor of the bogus [[ADE 651]] bomb detector, to take the challenge in October 2008.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/231-a-direct-specific-challenge-from-james-randi-and-the-jref.html |title=A Direct, Specific, Challenge From James Randi and the JREF |last1=Randi |first1=James |year=2008 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100123010157/http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/231-a-direct-specific-challenge-from-james-randi-and-the-jref.html |archivedate=January 23, 2010 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Randi called the ADE 651 "a useless quack device which cannot perform any other function than separating naive persons from their money. It's a fake, a scam, a swindle, and a blatant fraud. Prove me wrong and take the million dollars."<ref name="Times-Iraqis spent">{{cite news |title=Iraqis spent $80m on ADE651 bomb detectors described as useless |first1=Simon |last1=de Bruxelles |first2=Oliver |last2=August |authorlink2=Oliver August |url=http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/technology/article1859809.ece |newspaper=[[The Times]] |location=London |date=November 28, 2009 |accessdate=January 22, 2010}}</ref> There was no response from McCormick.<ref name="nyt4nov09">{{cite news |title=Iraq Swears by Bomb Detector U.S. Sees as Useless |first=Rod |last=Nordland |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/04/world/middleeast/04sensors.html |work=The New York Times |date=November 3, 2009 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111015141410/http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/04/world/middleeast/04sensors.html |archivedate=October 15, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> According to Iraqi investigators, the ADE 651, which was corruptly sold to the Baghdad bomb squad, was responsible for the deaths of hundreds of civilians who died as a result of terrorist bombs which were not detected at checkpoints. On April 23, 2013, McCormick was convicted of three counts of fraud at the [[Old Bailey]] in [[London]];<ref>{{cite news |title=James McCormick guilty of selling fake bomb detectors |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22266051 |work=[[BBC News]] |location=London |date=April 23, 2013 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131008121603/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22266051 |archivedate=October 8, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> he was subsequently sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for his part in the ADE 651 scandal, which Randi was the first to expose.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ezpzbe/iraqs-most-popular-bomb-detection-device-is-useless-video|title=Motherboard|last=Pasternack|first=Alex|date=March 21, 2013|access-date=September 29, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170929232406/https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ezpzbe/iraqs-most-popular-bomb-detection-device-is-useless-video|archivedate=September 29, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref name="Booth">{{cite news |title=Fake bomb detector conman jailed for 10 years |first=Robert |last=Booth |url=https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/may/02/fake-bomb-detector-conman-jailed |work=[[The Guardian]] |location=London |date=May 2, 2013 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131004070111/http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/may/02/fake-bomb-detector-conman-jailed |archivedate=October 4, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
A public log of past participants in the Million Dollar Challenge exists.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.internationalskeptics.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=43 |title=Challenge Applications |publisher=International Skeptics Forum |accessdate=10 June 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160619060604/http://www.internationalskeptics.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=43 |archivedate=June 19, 2016 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
In 2015, the James Randi paranormal challenge was officially terminated.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html|title=The Million Dollar Challenge|website=JREF|accessdate=September 3, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170904164131/http://web.randi.org/the-million-dollar-challenge.html|archivedate=September 4, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
==Legal disputes==
Randi has been involved in a variety of legal disputes but says that he has "never paid even one dollar or even one cent to anyone who ever sued me."<ref name="Randiwoo" /> However, he says, he has paid out large sums to defend himself in these suits.
===Uri Geller===
Randi met magician [[Uri Geller]] in the early 1970s, and found Geller to be "Very charming. Likable, beautiful, affectionate, genuine, forward-going, handsome — everything!"<ref name=Higginbotham/> But Randi viewed Geller as a con-man, and began a long effort to expose him as a fraud.<ref name=Higginbotham/> According to Randi, Geller tried to sue him several times, accusing him of libel. Geller never won, save for a ruling in a Japanese court that ordered Randi to pay Geller one-third of one percent of what Geller had requested. This ruling was canceled, and the matter dropped, when Geller decided to concentrate on another legal matter.<ref name="Randiwoo" /><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.uri-geller.com/psir.htm |title=An End to the ''Uri Geller vs. Randi & CSICOP'' Litigations? |last=Truzzi |first=Marcello |authorlink=Marcello Truzzi |publisher=UriGeller.com |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121208201045/http://www.uri-geller.com/psir.htm |archivedate=December 8, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
{{wikisource|Geller v. Randi}}
In May 1991, Geller sued Randi and CSICOP for $15 million on a charge of slander, after Randi told the ''[[The New York Times International Edition|International Herald Tribune]]'' that Geller had "tricked even reputable scientists" with stunts that "are the kind that used to be on the back of cereal boxes", referring to the old spoon-bending trick. The court dismissed the case and Geller had to settle at a cost to him of $120,000, after Randi produced a cereal box which bore instructions on how to do the spoon-bending trick. Geller's lawyer Don Katz was disbarred mid-way into this action and Geller ended up suing him. After failing to pay before the deadline imposed by the court, Geller was sanctioned an additional $20,000.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Uri Geller: Magician or Mystic?|last=Margolis|first=Jonathan|publisher=Orion Books|year=1999|isbn=978-1566490252|location=|pages=|url-access=registration|url=https://archive.org/details/urigellermagicia0000marg}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1991/08/29/a-case-of-mind-over-matter/a9dd790d-6e7c-4cff-b232-19f17b7df272/|title=A Case of Mind Over Matter|last=Thompson|first=Tracy|date=August 29, 1991|work=The Washington Post|accessdate=September 29, 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171005051241/https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1991/08/29/a-case-of-mind-over-matter/a9dd790d-6e7c-4cff-b232-19f17b7df272/|archivedate=October 5, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://urigellerdoit.blogspot.ca/|title=How does Uri Geller do it?|last=Cacho|first=Flavio|date=August 1, 2008|website=Blogger|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170929232152/http://urigellerdoit.blogspot.ca/|archivedate=September 29, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref name="csicop-suitdismissed">{{cite web |url=http://www.csicop.org/articles/uri_dis.html |title=Uri Geller Libel Suit Dismissed |date=August 1994 |website=Committee for Skeptical Inquiry |publisher=Center for Inquiry |location=Amherst, NY |archiveurl=https://archive.li/20061205032721/http://www.csicop.org/articles/uri_dis.html |archivedate=December 5, 2006 |accessdate=June 3, 2007 |url-status=dead |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="skepfiles-suitdismssed">{{cite web |url=http://www.skepticfiles.org/skeptic/randi032.htm |title=Lawsuit Against CSICOP Dismissed |website=The Skeptic Tank |publisher=Fredric L. Rice |location=San Clementa, CA |accessdate=June 3, 2007 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071007104245/http://www.skepticfiles.org/skeptic/randi032.htm |archivedate=October 7, 2007 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
Geller sued both Randi and [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry|CSICOP]]. CSICOP argued that the organization was not responsible for Randi's statements. The court agreed that including CSICOP was frivolous and dropped them from the action, leaving Randi to face the action alone, along with the legal costs. Geller was ordered to pay substantial damages, but only to CSICOP. The matter was subsequently settled out of court, and the details of the settlement have been kept confidential. The settlement also included an agreement that Geller would not pursue Randi for the award in the Japanese case or other outstanding cases.
===Other cases===
In 1993, a jury in the U.S. District Court in Baltimore found Randi liable for defaming Eldon Byrd for calling him a child molester in a magazine story and a "shopping market molester" in a 1988 speech. However, the jury found that Byrd was not entitled to any monetary damages after hearing testimony that he had sexually molested and later married his sister-in-law. The jury also cleared the other defendant in the case, CSICOP.<ref>West, Norris. P. (June 5, 1993). [http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1993-06-05/news/1993156046_1_byrd-magician-molester "Magician defamed scientist, jury rules"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141109031944/http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1993-06-05/news/1993156046_1_byrd-magician-molester |date=November 9, 2014 }}. ''[[The Baltimore Sun]]''.</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Randi Found Guilty of Defamation |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=MH&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB4CD802FEBC248&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM |newspaper=[[The Miami Herald]] |date=June 9, 1993 |accessdate=April 20, 2009}}</ref>
Late in 1996, Randi launched a libel suit against a Toronto-area psychic named Earl Gordon Curley.<ref name="jref-curley">{{cite web |url=http://www.skeptictank.org/hs/curley2.htm |title=Action initiated ...|last=Randi |first=James |date=December 4, 1996 |work=James Randi Educational Foundation Info List |accessdate=October 29, 2006 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060925234219/http://www.skeptictank.org/hs/curley2.htm |archivedate=September 25, 2006 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Curley had made multiple objectionable comments about Randi on [[Usenet]]. Despite suggesting to Randi on Usenet that Randi should sue – Curley's comments implying that if Randi did not sue, then his allegations must be true – Curley seemed entirely surprised when Randi actually retained Toronto's largest law firm and initiated legal proceedings. The suit was eventually dropped in 1998 when Earl Curley died at the age of 51 of "alcohol toxicity."<ref name="jref-curley2">{{cite web |url=http://www.mindspring.com/~anson/randi-hotline/1998/0025.html |title=Curley Confirmation + Sony Corp. and ESP, More on Theremin |last=Randi |first=James |date=July 8, 1998 |work=James Randi Educational Foundation Info List |accessdate=October 29, 2006 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070328131049/http://www.mindspring.com/~anson/randi-hotline/1998/0025.html |archivedate=March 28, 2007 |df=mdy-all }}{{failed verification|date=September 2015}}</ref>
[[Allison DuBois]], on whose life the television series ''[[Medium (TV series)|Medium]]'' was based, threatened Randi with legal action for using a photo of her from her website in his December 17, 2004, commentary without her permission.<ref name="swift-medium">{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=December 17, 2004 |title=Another Medium Well Done |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=October 29, 2006 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/121704no.html#5 |archive-url=https://archive.is/20061230183340/http://www.randi.org/jr/121704no.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=December 30, 2006 }}</ref> Randi removed the photo and subsequently used a [[caricature]] of DuBois when mentioning her on his site, beginning with his December 23, 2005, commentary.<ref name="swift-medium2">{{cite journal |last1=Randi |first1=James |last2=Hatchman |first2=Paul |date=December 23, 2005 |title=Medium Well Done |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=September 20, 2013 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/200512/122305hallelujah.html#i2 |archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20120229002015/http://randi.org/jr/200512/122305hallelujah.html#i2 |url-status=dead |archive-date=February 29, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
[[Sniffex]], producer of a dowsing bomb detection device, sued Randi and the JREF in 2007 and lost.<ref name="jref-Sniffex">{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/joom/content/view/204/1/#i1 |archive-url=https://archive.is/20080822214803/http://www.randi.org/joom/content/view/204/1/%23i1#i1 |archive-date=25 Feb 2013 |url-status=dead|title=An Encouraging Development |last=Randi |first=James |date=July 25, 2008 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=October 29, 2008}}</ref> Sniffex sued Randi for his comments regarding a government test in which the Sniffex device failed. The company was later investigated and charged with fraud.<ref name="jref-Sniffex"/>
==Personal life==
When he hosted his own radio show in the 1960s, Randi lived in a small house in [[Rumson, New Jersey]], that featured a sign on the premises that read: "Randi — Charlatan". In a Fort Lauderdale public library in 1986, Randi, who had recently moved to Florida, met Venezuelan artist José Alvarez (born Deyvi Orangel Peña Arteaga). They eventually moved in together,<ref name=Higginbotham/> and were married in Washington on July 2, 2013, with Randi turning 85 the next month.<ref name=Higginbotham/><ref>{{cite web |url=https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/randi-got-married/ |title=Randi got married |last=Coyne |first=Jerry A. |authorlink=Jerry Coyne |date=July 12, 2013 |work=Why Evolution is True |type=Blog |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131017022931/http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/randi-got-married/ |archivedate=October 17, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.skepticalabyss.com/?tag=tam-randi-amazing-meeti-g |title=Live Blogging Tam Day Two (Friday) |date=July 12, 2013 |work=The Skeptical Abyss |type=Blog |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131103143722/http://www.skepticalabyss.com/?tag=tam-randi-amazing-meeti-g |archivedate=November 3, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Bw9A1pR0EQa8bVJ4NHZUX19tdzQ/edit?pli=1|title= Testimonial letters to Judge Hurley}}</ref> They live in [[Plantation, Florida]].<ref name=Higginbotham/><ref>[[Sturgess, Kylie]] (March/April 2015). "Behind the Magic: An Interview with James Randi". ''Skeptical Inquirer'' Volume 39 Number 2, pp. 38–42.</ref>
In 1987, Randi became a [[Naturalization|naturalized citizen]] of the United States.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=September 17, 2001 |title=Commentary: Vapid Vultures, Conrad Comments, Grodin Goof, Sleuth Sylvia, Nostradamus Notes, Etc. |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=October 29, 2006 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/091701.html |archive-url=https://archive.is/20010923194359/http://www.randi.org/jr/091701.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=September 23, 2001 }}</ref> Randi has said that one reason he became an American citizen was an incident while he was on tour with [[Alice Cooper]] where the [[Royal Canadian Mounted Police]] searched the band's lockers during a performance. Nothing illicit or illegal was found, yet the RCMP trashed the room.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=July 15, 2005 |title=On the Soap Box |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=May 18, 2007 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/071505on.html#1 |archive-url=https://archive.is/20050717025944/http://www.randi.org/jr/071505on.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 17, 2005 }}</ref>
In February 2006, Randi underwent [[coronary artery bypass surgery]].<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Randi |first1=James |last2=Wagg |first2=Jeff |date=February 10, 2006 |title=Randi Update |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=May 18, 2007 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-02/021006busted.html#i1 |archive-url=https://archive.is/20060215193209/http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-02/021006busted.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=February 15, 2006 }}</ref> In early February 2006, he was declared to be in stable condition and "receiving excellent care" with his recovery proceeding well. The weekly commentary updates to his Web site were made by guests while he was hospitalized.<ref name="swift-guestauthor">{{cite journal |last=Bidlack |first=Hal |authorlink=Hal Bidlack |date=February 17, 2006 |title=Randi Update, The Big Tent, In Closing ...|journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=October 29, 2006 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-02/021706hal.html |archive-url=https://archive.is/20061231093108/http://www.randi.org/jr/2006-02/021706hal.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=December 31, 2006 }}</ref> Randi recovered after his surgery and was able to help organize and attend the 2007 [[The Amaz!ng Meeting|Amaz!ng Meeting (T.A.M.)]] in [[Las Vegas Valley|Las Vegas, Nevada]], his annual convention of [[scientists]], magicians, [[Skepticism|skeptics]], [[atheists]] and [[Freethought|freethinkers]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=February 2, 2007 |title=In Conclusion ...|journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=October 29, 2007 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-02/020207geller.html#i11 |archive-url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090709212526/http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-02/020207geller.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 9, 2009 }}</ref>
Randi was diagnosed with [[colorectal cancer]] in June 2009.<ref name="OnAndOffChemo">{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/832-randi-on-and-off-chemotherapy.html |title=Randi On (and Off) Chemotherapy |last=Thorp |first=Brandon K. |date=January 12, 2010 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=July 23, 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140708220109/http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/832-randi-on-and-off-chemotherapy.html |archive-date=July 8, 2014 |url-status=dead }}</ref> He had a series of small [[Neoplasm|tumor]]s removed from his [[Human gastrointestinal tract|intestines]] during [[laparoscopic surgery]]. He announced the diagnosis a week later at The Amaz!ng Meeting 7, as well as the fact that he was scheduled to begin [[chemotherapy]] in the following weeks.<ref name="SF-Weekly">{{cite news |title=The Demystifying Adventures of the Amazing Randi |first=Michael J. |last=Mooney |url=http://www.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/the-demystifying-adventures-of-the-amazing-randi/Content?oid=2173920&showFullText=true |newspaper=[[SF Weekly]] |location=San Francisco, CA |publisher=[[Village Voice Media]] |date=August 26, 2009 |accessdate=September 5, 2009 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150714115327/http://www.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/the-demystifying-adventures-of-the-amazing-randi/Content?oid=2173920&showFullText=true |archivedate=July 14, 2015 |df=mdy-all }} Lengthy article which reported: "He has intestinal cancer and may not have long to live."</ref> He also said at the conference: "One day, I'm gonna die. That's all there is to it. Hey, it's too bad, but I've got to make room. I'm using a lot of oxygen and such—I think it's good use of oxygen myself, but of course, I'm a little prejudiced on the matter."<ref name="SF-Weekly" />
Randi underwent his final chemotherapy session on December 31, 2009, later saying that his chemotherapy experience was not as unpleasant as he had imagined it might be.<ref name="OnAndOffChemo"/> In a video posted April 12, 2010, Randi stated that he had been given a clean bill of health.<ref>{{YouTube|id=_WyzM_TsIXc|title=James Randi Speaks Homeopathy Week 2010|link=no}}</ref>
In a March 21, 2010, blog entry, Randi [[Coming out|came out]] as [[Homosexuality|gay]], a move he said was inspired by seeing the 2008 biographical drama film ''[[Milk (film)|Milk]]''.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/914-how-to-say-it.html |title=How To Say It? |last=Randi |first=James |date=March 21, 2010 |work=Swift |publisher=JREF |type=Blog |accessdate=October 9, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite podcast |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWDYITbLyTg |title=James Randi – A Skeptic Comes Out at 81 |website=For Good Reason |publisher=JREF |host=[[D. J. Grothe|Grothe, D. J.]] |date=March 21, 2010 |accessdate=June 10, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140628121337/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWDYITbLyTg |archivedate=June 28, 2014 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
In the 1993 documentary "[[Secrets of the Psychics]]", Randi stated, "I've never involved myself in narcotics of any kind; I don't smoke; I don't drink, because that can easily just fuzz the edges of my rationality, fuzz the edges of my reasoning powers, and I want to be as aware as I possibly can. That means giving up a lot of fantasies that might be comforting in some ways, but I'm willing to give that up in order to live in an actually real world, as close as I can get to it".{{sfn|"Secrets of the Psychics"|loc=10'45"}}
In a video released on October 16, 2017, Randi revealed that he had recently suffered a minor [[stroke]], and that he was under medical advice not to travel during his recovery, so would be unable to attend [[CSICon]] 2017 in Las Vegas later that month.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Randi|first1=James|title=Video message to CSICon attendees|url=https://www.facebook.com/CSIConference/videos/1484609861615742/|website=Facebook|publisher=CSICon - Skeptical Inquirer Conference|accessdate=17 October 2017}}</ref>
== Political views ==
Randi is a registered Democrat.<ref name="theesp.eu"/> <!-- The passage in question starts at 56:12 and ends at 59:51 in the podcast. -->
==Awards and honors==
{| class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse: collapse;"
! Year |!! Award or honor
| 1977 || Visiting Magician of the Year, Academy of Magical Arts & Sciences at [[the Magic Castle]] in Hollywood.<ref name="aboutjr">{{cite web|title=About James Randi|url=http://web.randi.org/about-james-randi.html|website=James Randi Educational Foundation|publisher=James Randi Educational Foundation|accessdate=24 August 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161128172118/http://web.randi.org/about-james-randi.html|archivedate=November 28, 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
| 1978 || Garden State Magicians' award.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1981 || Asteroid [[3163 Randi]] was named after James Randi,<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://minorplanetcenter.net/db_search/show_object?object_id=3163|title=(3163) Randi|last=|first=|date=|website=IAU Minor Planet Center|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2020-01-22}}</ref> who has always been an active [[Amateur astronomy|amateur observer]]. His friend [[Carl Sagan]] encouraged his interest.<ref name="TorontoStar1986" /><br />Certificate of appreciation at the MIT Club of Boston.<ref name="aboutjr" /><br />Designated Grand Master of Magic by Hocus Pocus Magazine.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1983 || Blackstone Cup, International Platform Association as Outstanding Speaker (won again in 1987).<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1984 || Honorary membership, Bay Surgical Society of Los Angeles.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1986 || A $273,000 [[MacArthur Foundation Fellowship]] was awarded to James Randi for his investigations of the claims of Uri Geller and TV "[[faith healers]]"<ref name="macfound">{{cite web|url=https://www.macfound.org/fellows/284/|title=James Randi|last=|first=|date=|website=MacArthur Foundation|publisher=[[John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation]]|location=Chicago, IL|url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=|accessdate=August 19, 2012}}</ref><br />Honorary membership, Israeli Society for Promoting the Art of Magic.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1987 || Special fellowship, Academy of Magical Arts & Sciences in Los Angeles.<ref name="aboutjr" /><br />Certificate of Appreciation, Ring 254 of the International Brotherhood of Magicians.<ref name="aboutjr" /><br />Award of Merit, Assembly 22 of the Society of American Magicians.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1988 || National Consumer Service Award, [[National Council Against Health Fraud]].<ref name="aboutjr" /><br />International Ambassador of Magic, Society of American Magicians.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1989 || Joseph A. Burton Forum Award, [[American Physical Society]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aps.org/programs/honors/awards/burton.cfm |title=Joseph A. Burton Forum Award |publisher=American Physical Society |location=College Park, MD |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081202232131/http://www.aps.org./programs/honors/awards/burton.cfm |archivedate=December 2, 2008 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><br />Gold Medal, University of Ghent.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1990 || Humanist Distinguished Service Award, [[American Humanist Association]].<ref name="aboutjr" /> <br />Thomas Paine Award, Baton Rouge Proponents of Rational Inquiry & Scientific Methods.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1992 || Commemorative Medal with Golden Wreath, Hungarian Society for the Dissemination of Scientific Knowledge.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1996 || Distinguished Skeptic Award, [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry]] (CSICOP).<ref name="aboutjr" /><ref name="First World Congress 1996">{{cite journal|title=CSICOP Award Winners|journal=Skeptical Inquirer|date=1996|volume=20|issue=5|page=7}}</ref>
| 1997 || Lifetime Achievement Award, [[International Brotherhood of Magicians]].<ref name="aboutjr" /><br />"One of the 100 Best People in the World, people who make our lives richer or larger or happier," Esquire magazine.<ref name="aboutjr" /><br />Award, Science & Engineering Society of the National Security Agency.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 1999 || "In Defense of Reason" Special Lifetime Achievement Award, Comitato Italiano per il Controllo dell Affermazioni sui Paranormale.<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 2000 || Distinguished Lecturer Award, [[Nova Southeastern University]].<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 2002 || Presidential Citation, [[International Brotherhood of Magicians]].<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 2003 || First [[Richard Dawkins Award]].<ref name="Randiofficialbio" />
| 2007 || [[Philip J. Klass#The Philip J. Klass Award|Philip J. Klass Award]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Randi |first=James |date=March 23, 2007 |title=In Closing |journal=Swift |type=Newsletter |accessdate=May 18, 2007 |url=http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-03/032307tx.html#i11 |archive-url=https://archive.is/20070326234436/http://www.randi.org/jr/2007-03/032307tx.html%23i11#i11 |archive-date=9 Oct 2013 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
| 2008 || Lifetime Achievement Award, [[Independent Investigations Group]] (IIG). Previous recipients Carl Sagan and Harry Houdini.<ref name="aboutjr" /><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.iigwest.com/iigawards/2008/index.html |title=The 2008 IIG Awards |date=August 21, 2010 |website=The Independent Investigations Group |publisher=[[Independent Investigations Group]] |location=Hollywood, CA |accessdate=July 1, 2011 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110713005259/http://www.iigwest.com/iigawards/2008/index.html |archivedate=July 13, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| 2009 || In Praise of Reason Award, [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry]].<ref name="aboutjr" />
| 2010 || Elected a [[Committee for Skeptical Inquiry]] Fellow.<ref>{{cite press release |last=Bupp |first=Nathan |title=Sixteen Notable Figures in Science and Skepticism Elected CSI Fellows |url=http://www.csicop.org/news/press_releases/show/sixteen_notable_figures_in_science_and_skepticism_elected_csi_fellows |date=January 12, 2010 |publisher=Committee for Skeptical Inquiry |location=Amherst, NY |accessdate=February 12, 2010 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100202163416/http://www.csicop.org/news/press_releases/show/sixteen_notable_figures_in_science_and_skepticism_elected_csi_fellows |archivedate=February 2, 2010 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| 2012 || Lifetime Achievement Fellowship, [[Academy of Magical Arts]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://themandalamag.com/2012/04/02/the-academy-of-magical-arts-awards-results/ |title=The Academy of Magical Arts Awards Results |last=McMaster |first=Shawn |date=April 2, 2012 |website=The Mandala |publisher=Shawn McMaster |accessdate=April 6, 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120408135746/http://themandalamag.com/2012/04/02/the-academy-of-magical-arts-awards-results/ |archivedate=April 8, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><br />Lifetime Achievement Award, [[American Humanist Association]].<ref>{{cite press release |last=Magee |first=Brian |title=Atheists 'Marching' to New Orleans for 71st Annual American Humanist Association Conference |url=http://members.neworleanscvb.com/CustPage.aspx?pagename=special-event-invitations&ID=44 |date=May 23, 2012 |publisher=American Humanist Association |location=Washington, D.C. |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131009071203/http://members.neworleanscvb.com/CustPage.aspx?pagename=special-event-invitations&ID=44 |archivedate=October 9, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| 2016 || [[Heinz Oberhummer]] Award, 2016<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.tuwien.ac.at/aktuelles/news_detail/article/124447/|title=Heinz Oberhummer Award geht an James Randi|publisher=[[Technische Universität Wien]]|date=November 3, 2016|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161203122734/https://www.tuwien.ac.at/aktuelles/news_detail/article/124447/|archivedate=December 3, 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref><br />Lifetime Achievement Award, [[Humanist Canada|Humanist Association of Canada]].<ref>{{cite web|last1=Randi|first1=James|title=May 31, 2016|url=https://www.facebook.com/jamesrandi/posts/10154191706231462:0?sw_fnr_id=2435300048&fnr_t=0|website=Facebook: James Randi|publisher=Facebook|accessdate=24 August 2017}}</ref>
| ||James Randi is one of very few members of the UK Magic Circle to be granted their highest order: Member of the Inner Magic Circle With Gold Star (MIMC).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://themagiccircle.co.uk/member-lookup |title=Members |website=The Magic Circle |accessdate=July 25, 2015 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150725141104/http://themagiccircle.co.uk/member-lookup |archivedate=July 25, 2015 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
==World records==
The following are [[Guinness World Records]]:
* Randi was in a sealed casket underwater for an hour and 44 minutes, which broke Harry Houdini's record of one hour and 33 minutes set on August 5, 1926.<ref name=Higginbotham/><ref name="TorontoStar1986"/>
* Randi was encased in a block of ice for 55 minutes.<ref name=Higginbotham/><ref name="TorontoStar1986"/>
[[File:Audio James Randi Long Version.ogg|thumb|Long version of Audio recorded at [[CSICon]] October 2016]]
* {{cite book |last1=Randi |first1=James |last2=Sugar |first2=Bert Randolph |authorlink2=Bert Sugar |title=Houdini, His Life and Art |year=1976 |publisher=[[Grosset & Dunlap]] |location=New York |isbn=978-0-448-12552-7 |oclc=3017457 |ref=Randi & Sugar}}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |others=Introduction by [[Isaac Asimov]] |title=Flim-Flam!: Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions |year=1982 |publisher=[[Prometheus Books]] |location=Buffalo, NY |isbn=978-0-87975-198-2 |oclc=9066769 |lccn=82060953 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1982a|title-link=Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions }}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |title=Test Your ESP Potential: A Complete Kit With Instructions, Scorecards, and Apparatus |year=1982 |publisher=[[Dover Publications]] |location=New York |isbn=978-0-486-24269-9 |oclc=7924713 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1982b}}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |title=The Truth About Uri Geller |origyear=Originally published 1975 as ''The Magic of Uri Geller''; New York: [[Ballantine Books]] |year=1982 |publisher=Prometheus Books |location=New York |isbn=978-0-87975-199-9 |oclc=9164994 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1982c|title-link=The Truth About Uri Geller }}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |others=Foreword by [[Carl Sagan]] |title=The Faith Healers |year=1987 |publisher=Prometheus Books |location=Buffalo, NY |isbn=978-0-87975-369-6 |oclc=16353426 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1987|title-link=The Faith Healers }}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |title=The Magic World of the Amazing Randi |year=1989 |publisher=Adams Media Corporation |location=Holbrook, MA |isbn=978-1-55850-982-5 |oclc=21303371 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1989}}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |title=The Mask of Nostradamus: The Prophecies of the World's Most Famous Seer |year=1990 |publisher=[[Charles Scribner's Sons]] |location= |isbn=978-0-684-19056-3 |oclc=824193656 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1990|title-link=The Mask of Nostradamus: The Prophecies of the World's Most Famous Seer }}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |title=James Randi: Psychic Investigator |year=1991 |publisher=[[Macmillan Publishers|Boxtree Ltd]] |location=London |isbn=978-1-85283-144-8 |oclc=26359284 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1991}} Companion book to the [[Open Media]]/[[ITV Granada|Granada Television]] series.
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |title=Conjuring: Being a Definitive History of the Venerable Arts of Sorcery, Prestidigitation, Wizardry, Deception, & Chicanery and of the Mountebanks & Scoundrels Who have Perpetrated these Subterfuges on a Bewildered Public, in short, MAGIC! |edition=1st |year=1992 |publisher=[[St. Martin's Press]] |location=New York |isbn=978-0-312-09771-4 |oclc=640909937 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1992|title-link=Conjuring (book) }}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |others=Introduction by [[Arthur C. Clarke]] |title=An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural |edition=1st |year=1995 |publisher=St. Martin's Press |location=New York |isbn=978-0-312-15119-5 |oclc=35978760 |author-mask=2 |ref=Randi 1995|title-link=An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural }} ([http://web.randi.org/encyclopedia-of-claims.html Online version])
* ''A Magician in the Laboratory'' (Forthcoming)<ref name="randi1">{{cite web |url=http://www.randi.org/documents/randiresume.pdf |title=JAMES RANDI&nbsp;– Bio Information |publisher=JREF |accessdate=December 20, 2010}}</ref>
* ''Wrong!'' (Forthcoming)<ref name="randi1" />
==Television and film==
[[File:Publicity_material_for_the_tv_series_"James_Randi,_Psychic_Investigator".jpg|thumb|right|350px|Publicity material for [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] series ''"James Randi: Psychic Investigator"'' produced by [[Open Media]] in 1991]]
[[File:James Randi and guests appearing on ITV series "James Randi, Psychic Investigator".jpg|thumb|right|350px|With guests on [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] series ''"James Randi: Psychic Investigator"'' produced by [[Open Media]] in 1991]]
* ''[[Good to See You Again, Alice Cooper]]'' (1974) as the Dentist/Executioner
* ''[[Ragtime (film)|Ragtime]]'' (1981) (stunt coordinator: Houdini)
* ''[[Penn & Teller]]'s Invisible Thread'' (1987) (TV)
* ''[[Penn & Teller Get Killed]]'' (1989) as the 3rd Rope Holder
* ''Beyond Desire'' (1994) as the Coroner
* ''[[Wonderama]]'' (1959–1967) (TV) as The Amazing Randi
* ''[[I've Got a Secret]]'' (1965) (TV) as The Amazing Randi
* ''[[Happy Days]]'' – "The Magic Show" (1978) as the Amazing Randi<ref>{{cite episode |title=The Magic Show |url=http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/happy-days-1978/episode-13-season-6/magic/100197 |accessdate=October 9, 2013 |series=[[Happy Days]] |network=[[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]] |date=December 5, 1978 |season=6 |number=13 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131004213631/http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/happy-days-1978/episode-13-season-6/magic/100197 |archivedate=October 4, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
* ''[[Zembla (TV series)|Zembla]]'', 'De trucs van Char' (''The tricks [[Char Margolis|Char]] uses''). (March 2008)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://zembla.vara.nl/Voorpagina.1975.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=5316&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=1974&cHash=0e36f258ac |title=''De trucs van Char, het medium – 23 maart 2008'' |accessdate=2009-01-01 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080324163226/http://zembla.vara.nl/Voorpagina.1975.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=5316&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=1974&cHash=0e36f258ac |archivedate=March 24, 2008 |df=mdy }}</ref>
* ''ZDF German TV'' (2007)
* ''Wild Wild Web'' (1999)
* ''[[West 57th (TV series)|West 57th]]'' (1980s)
* ''Welt der Wunder – Kraft der Gedanken'' (January 2008)
* ''[[Today (U.S. TV program)|Today]]'' (many appearances)
* ''[[The Don Lane Show]]'' (Australia)
* ''[[That's My Line]]'' (1981) (Appeared with [[James Hydrick]])
* ''[[The View (U.S. TV series)|The View]]'' ([[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]]) multiple appearances 1997–present
* ''[[The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson]]'' (32 appearances between 1973 and 1993 plus repeats)
* ''[[The Secret Cabaret]]'' (produced by [[Open Media]] for [[Channel 4]] in the UK)
* ''[[The Power of Belief]]'' (October 6, 1998) ([[ABC News]] Special) (TV)
* ''People are Talking'' (1980s)
* ''[[The Patterson Show]]'' (1970s)
* ''Superpowers?'' (an [[Equinox (TV series)|Equinox]] documentary made by [[Open Media]] for [[Channel 4]] in 1990)<ref>[http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/475347/Superpowers- TCM] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150419195639/http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/475347/Superpowers-/ |date=April 19, 2015 }} and [http://www.ovguide.com/tv_episode/equinox-season-1990-episode-14-superpowers-4384747 Online Video Guide] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150415113848/http://www.ovguide.com/tv_episode/equinox-season-1990-episode-14-superpowers-4384747 |date=April 15, 2015 }}. Retrieved April 15, 2015</ref>
* ''[[After Dark (TV series)|After Dark]]'' (September 3, 1988, September 9, 1989)<ref>[[List of After Dark editions|List of ''After Dark'' editions]]</ref>
* ''Weird Thoughts'', [[Open Media]] discussion hosted by [[Tony Wilson]] for [[BBC TV]], with [[Mary Beard (classicist)|Mary Beard]] and others, 1994<ref>''[http://www.eofftv.com/w/wei/weird_thoughts_main.htm EOFF] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050219163932/http://eofftv.com/w/wei/weird_thoughts_main.htm |date=February 19, 2005 }}''. Retrieved April 15, 2015</ref>
* ''The Art of Magic'' (1998) (TV)
* ''The Ultimate Psychic Challenge'' ([[Discovery Channel]]/Channel 4) (2003)
* ''Spotlight on James Randi'' (2002) (TV)
* ''[[Secrets of the Super Psychics]]'' (Channel 4/[[TLC (TV network)|The Learning Channel]]), produced by [[Open Media]], 1997/8
* ''[[Scams, Schemes, and Scoundrels]]'' (A&E Special) (March 30, 1997)
* ''RAI TV'' Italy (1991)
* ''[[Politically Incorrect]]'' with [[Bill Maher]]
* ''[[Penn & Teller: Bullshit!]]'' several appearances
** "End of the World" (2003) TV Episode
** "ESP" (2003) TV Episode
** "Signs from Heaven" (2005) TV Episode
* ''[[The Oprah Winfrey Show]]'' 2 episodes
* ''[[Lawrence Leung's Unbelievable]]'' (Australia) TV Episode
* ''[[Nova (American TV series)|Nova]]'': "[[Secrets of the Psychics]]" (1993)
* ''Mitä ihmettä?'' (Finland) (2003) TV Series
* ''[[Midday (Australian TV program)|Midday]]'' (Australia) (1990s)
* ''Magic or Miracle?'' (1983) TV special
* ''Magic'' (2004) (mini) TV Series
* ''[[Larry King Live]]'' ([[CNN]]) (June 5, 2001, September 3, 2001, January 26, 2007, several more)
* ''James Randi: Psychic Investigator'' (1991) ([[Open Media]] series for the [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] network)
* ''[[James Randi Budapesten]]'' – Hungarian documentary
* ''[[Inside Edition]]'' – (1991, 2006, and 2007) TV
* ''[[Horizon (BBC TV series)|Horizon]]'' – [http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2002/homeopathy.shtml "Homeopathy: The Test"] (2002) BBC/UK TV Episode
* ''Dead Men Talking'' ([[The Biography Channel]]) (2007)
* ''Fornemmelse for snyd'' (2003) TV Series (also archive footage) Denmark
* ''[[Extraordinary People (2003 TV series)|Extraordinary People]]'' – "The Million Dollar Mind Reader" (September 2008).<ref>{{cite episode |title=The Million Dollar Mind Reader |url=http://www.channel5.com/shows/extraordinary-people/episodes/extraordinary-people-the-million-dollar-mind-reader |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |series=[[Extraordinary People (2003 TV series)|Extraordinary People]] |network=[[Channel 5 (UK)|Channel 5]] |date=November 23, 2011 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120104022835/http://www.channel5.com/shows/extraordinary-people/episodes/extraordinary-people-the-million-dollar-mind-reader |archivedate=January 4, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
* ''Exploring Psychic Powers ... Live'' (June 7, 1989; hosted by [[Bill Bixby]])
* ''[[CBS This Morning]]'' (1990s)
* ''[[Anderson Cooper 360°]]'', [[CNN]] (January 19, 2007, and January 30, 2007)<ref>{{cite interview |last=Randi |first=James |interviewer=[[Anderson Cooper]] |title=Psychic Powers Debunked in Shawn Hornbeck Case? |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/19/acd.01.html |work=[[Anderson Cooper 360°]] |publisher=CNN |date=January 19, 2007 |accessdate=June 30, 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120514203713/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/19/acd.01.html |archivedate=May 14, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite interview |last1=Rossi |first1=Linda |last2=Randi |first2=James |interviewer=Anderson Cooper |title=Psychic Reality Check |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/30/acd.01.html |work=Anderson Cooper 360° |publisher=CNN |date=January 30, 2007 |accessdate=June 30, 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120514185756/http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/30/acd.01.html |archivedate=May 14, 2012 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
* ''[[A Question of Miracles]]'' ([[HBO]]) (1999)
* ''[[20/20 (U.S. TV series)|20/20]]'' ([[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]]) (May 11, 2007)<ref>{{cite news |title=Selling Salvation? |first1=Jim |last1=Avila |authorlink1=Jim Avila |first2=Glenn |last2=Ruppel |first3=Donna |last3=Hunter |url=http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=3164858&page=1 |work=[[20/20 (U.S. TV series)|20/20]] |publisher=ABC |date=May 11, 2007 |accessdate=August 24, 2013 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131228163336/http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=3164858&page=1 |archivedate=December 28, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
*''[[An Honest Liar]]'' (2014, aired as ''Exposed: Magicians, Psychics and Frauds'' on [[BBC Storyville]])
==Other media==
* One of [[Martin Gardner]]'s articles about [[Dr. Irving Joshua Matrix]] has a note that one of the Doctor's scams, a school supposedly teaching clairvoyance, was exposed thanks to Randi enrolling in the school under an alias. Another article ends with the mention of Randi aiding two investigative reporters in exposing another scam, a supposedly sapient&mdash;but actually remotely controlled&mdash;robot.
* In 2007, Randi delivered a talk at [[TED (conference)|TED]] in which he discussed psychic fraud, homeopathy, and his foundation's Million Dollar Challenge.<ref name="takedown" />
* Randi can be heard speaking an introduction on [[Tommy Finke]]'s song "Poet der Affen/Poet of the Apes" released on the album of the same name in 2010. The message was recorded by Randi and sent to Finke by e-mail.<ref>{{YouTube|id=62C-ItkcszE|title=Poet der Affen / Poet of the Apes|link=no}}</ref>
==See also==
* [[Pigasus Award]]
* [[Robert Todd Carroll]]'s ''[[Skeptic's Dictionary]]''
* [[List of topics characterized as pseudoscience]]
==Further reading==
* {{cite book |last=Alcock |first=James |authorlink=James Alcock |editor-last=Kurtz |editor-first=Paul |editor-link=Paul Kurtz |year=2001 |title=Skeptical Odysseys: Personal Accounts by the World's Leading Paranormal Inquirers |chapter=Science vs. Pseudoscience, Nonscience, and Nonsense |publisher=Prometheus Books |location=Amherst, NY |isbn=978-1-57392-884-7 |oclc=45821233 |ref=Alcock}}
* {{cite book |last=Asimov |first=Isaac |authorlink=Isaac Asimov |title=I. Asimov: A Memoir |chapter-url=https://archive.org/details/iasimovmemoir00asim_0 |chapter-url-access=registration |edition=1st |year=1994 |publisher=[[Doubleday (publisher)|Doubleday]] |location=New York |isbn=978-0-553-56997-1 |oclc=32012202 |lccn=93008644 |chapter=Trap Door Spiders |ref=Asimov}}
* {{cite book |last=Burt |first=Daniel S. |title=The Biography Book: A Reader's Guide to Nonfiction, Fictional, and Film Biographies of More Than 500 of the Most Fascinating Individuals of All Time |year=2001 |publisher=Oryx Press |location=Westport, CT |isbn=978-1-57356-256-0 |oclc=44502070 |ref=Burt}}
* {{cite book |last=Carroll |first=Robert Todd |authorlink=Robert Todd Carroll |title=The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions |year=2003 |publisher=[[John Wiley & Sons]] |location=Hoboken, NJ |isbn=978-0-471-27242-7 |oclc=52086432 |ref=Carroll}}
* {{cite book |editor-last=Colombo |editor-first=John Robert |editor-link=John Robert Colombo |title=The Midnight Hour: Canadian Accounts of Eerie Experiences |year=2004 |publisher=[[Dundurn Press]] |isbn=978-1-55002-496-8 |oclc=53847365 |ref=Colombo |url=https://archive.org/details/midnighthourcana0000unse }}
* {{cite book |last=Gardner |first=Martin |authorlink=Martin Gardner |title=Did Adam and Eve have Navels: Discourses on Reflexology, Numerology, Urine Therapy, and Other Dubious Subjects |year=2000 |publisher=[[W. W. Norton & Company]] |location=New York |isbn=978-0-393-04963-3 |oclc=44076017 |ref=Gardner |url=https://archive.org/details/didadamevehavena00gard }}
* {{cite book |last=Lamont |first=Peter |authorlink=Peter Lamont (historian) |title=The First Psychic: The Peculiar Mystery of a Notorious Victorian Wizard |year=2005 |publisher=[[Little, Brown and Company|Little, Brown]] |location=London |isbn=978-0-316-72834-8 |oclc=62176762 |page=302 |ref=Lamont}}
* {{cite book |editor-last=Moritz |editor-first=Charles |title=Current Biography Yearbook, 1987 |volume=48 |year=1987 |publisher=[[H. W. Wilson Company]] |location=New York |oclc=17332312 |ref=Moritz}}
* {{cite book |last1=Moseley |first1=James W. |authorlink1=James W. Moseley |last2=Pflock |first2=Karl T. |authorlink2=Karl T. Pflock |title=Shockingly Close to the Truth! Confessions of a Grave-Robbing Ufologist |year=2002 |publisher=Prometheus Books |location=New York |isbn=978-1-57392-991-2 |oclc=48942361 |ref=Moseley & Pflock}}
* {{cite book |last=Polidoro |first=Massimo |authorlink=Massimo Polidoro |title=Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims |year=2003 |publisher=Prometheus Books |location=Amherst, NY |isbn=978-1-59102-086-8 |oclc=52312569 |ref=Polidoro |url=https://archive.org/details/secretsofpsychic0000poli }}
* {{cite book |last=Randi |first=James |editor1-first=Yervant |editor1-last=Terzian |editor2-first=Elizabeth |editor2-last=Bilson |title=Carl Sagan's Universe |year=1997 |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |location=Cambridge; New York |isbn=978-0-521-57286-6 |oclc=36130681 |lccn=96040511 |chapter=Science and Pseudoscience |ref=Randi 1997 |url=https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780521576031 }}
* {{cite book |last=Rodrigues |first=Luís F. |title=Open Questions: Diverse Thinkers Discuss God, Religion, and Faith |year=2010 |publisher=[[Greenwood Publishing Group|Praeger]] |location=Santa Barbara, CA |isbn=978-0-313-38644-2 |oclc=548555665 |lccn=2010011195 |ref=Rodrigues}}
==External links==
* {{official website}}
* [http://skepdic.com/randi.html James Randi in] the [[Skeptic's Dictionary]]
* {{IMDb name|709791|James Randi}}
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n80-62980}}
* [http://www.linkingpage.com/magicnewsfeed/2009/5/12/mnw-110-james-randi.html James Randi interview] (May 2009) from the podcast of MagicNewswire.com in which Randi discusses his career in magic, his feud with Uri Geller and more.
* [http://bsalert.com/news/2145/BSAlert_Show_5_-_James_Randi_on_Paranormalism_and_Phenomenon.html James Randi interview] (November 2007) from the BSAlert.com radio show where Randi discusses NBC's ''[[Phenomenon (TV series)|Phenomenon]]'' TV show, the current status of Uri Geller and his thoughts about whether society is becoming more or less superstitious.
* {{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2002/homeopathyrandi.shtml|title=Homeopathy: The Test&nbsp;– webchat with James Randi|publisher=BBC|date=November 26, 2002}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20160304061557/http://www.skeptictank.org/hs/paranorm.htm "20 Major Aspects of Liars, Cheats, and Frauds" by James Randi"]
{{James Randi|state=expanded}}
{{Authority control}}
{{DEFAULTSORT:Randi, James}}
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