San Juan, Portoriko: Razlika med redakcijama

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Je druga najstarejša evropska naselbina na zahodni polobli za [[Santo Domingo]]m, ki so jo v sedanji obliki leta 1521 pod imenom Ciudad de Puerto Rico (»mesto na bogati obali«) ustanovili španski naseljenci, na kraju starejšega naselja iz leta 1509.<ref>{{navedi knjigo |first=Roman A. |last=Cybriwsky |chapter=San Juan: Pride of Puerto Rico |title=Capital Cities around the World |publisher=ABC-CLIO |year=2013 |isbn=9781610692489 |pages=335}}</ref> Kmalu je postala pomembno izhodišče za španske raziskovalce, ki so prodirali v [[Novi svet]]. Za zaščito pred napadi staroselcev in rivalnih narodov (zlasti [[gusar]]jev, kot je bil sir [[Francis Drake]]), so zgradili mogočne utrdbe, kot sta utrjena palača La Fortaleza in grad San Felipe del Morro. Konec 16. stoletja so mesto kljub temu za kratek čas zavzeli Angleži in kmalu po tistem še Nizozemci. V odgovor je nastala trdnjava San Cristóbal, največja španska utrdba v Novem svetu. Poleg njih je v San Juanu ohranjeno večje število cerkva, upravnih in drugih stavb iz kolonialnih časov; staro mesto je od leta 1983 vpisano v [[Unescova svetovna dediščina|Unescov seznam svetovne kulturne dediščine]].<ref name="Britannica">{{navedi splet| url=https://www.britannica.com/place/San-Juan-Puerto-Rico |title=San Juan |work=[[Enciklopedija Britannica|Britannica Online]] |accessdate=13.2.2018}}</ref>
 
San Juan se je v 20. stoletju močno razširil in upravno zaobjel okoliške občine. Zdaj je glavno središče industrije, financ in prometa na otoku, velik gospodarski pomen pa ima tudi [[turizem]]. Za zmanjšanje težav s prometnimi zastoji so leta 2004 odprli prvo linijo regionalne hitre železnice. Mesto oskrbuje mednarodno letališče Luisa Muñoza Marína, ki je eno najprometnejših vna vseh Karibih.<ref name="Britannica"/>
 
== Sklici in opombeGeografija ==
San Juan stoji ob severovzhodni obali otoka Portoriko. Meji na občine Guaynabo na zahodu, Caguas in Trujillo Alto na jugu ter Carolina na vzhodu. Staro mestno jedro se nahaja na obalah istoimenskega zaliva, ki predstavlja dobro zaščiten in globok [[estuarij]] s več medsebojno povezanimi [[laguna]]mi. Na račun ugodnih naravnih danosti se je tu razvilo najprometnejše pristanišče v vsem Portoriku.
{{sklici}}
 
=== Podnebje ===
Območje, kjer stoji mesto, ima [[tropsko monsunsko podnebje]] s povprečno temperaturo 27,2 °C.
 
{{Weather box
|location = Mednarodno letališče San Juan Luis Munoz Marin, Portoriko (povprečja 1981–2010, ekstremi 1898–sedanjost){{efn|Uradni podatki se nanašajo na središče mesta za obdobje november 1898 do decembra 1955, od januarja 1956 pa na letališče.<ref>{{navedi splet| url=http://threadex.rcc-acis.org/ |title=ThreadEx |work=Applied Climate Information System |publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |accessdate=18.2.2018}}</ref>}}
|single line = Y
|temperature colour = pastel
|Jan record high C = 33
|Feb record high C = 36
|Mar record high C = 36
|Apr record high C = 36
|May record high C = 36
|Jun record high C = 36
|Jul record high C = 35
|Aug record high C = 36
|Sep record high C = 36
|Oct record high C = 37
|Nov record high C = 36
|Dec record high C = 34
|year record high C = 37
|Jan avg record high C = 30.8
|Feb avg record high C = 31.2
|Mar avg record high C = 32.3
|Apr avg record high C = 33.2
|May avg record high C = 33.7
|Jun avg record high C = 33.8
|Jul avg record high C = 33.5
|Aug avg record high C = 33.7
|Sep avg record high C = 34.2
|Oct avg record high C = 33.8
|Nov avg record high C = 32.4
|Dec avg record high C = 30.9
|year avg record high C = 34.8
|Jan high C = 28.4
|Feb high C = 28.7
|Mar high C = 29.4
|Apr high C = 30.1
|May high C = 30.8
|Jun high C = 31.6
|Jul high C = 31.5
|Aug high C = 31.8
|Sep high C = 31.8
|Oct high C = 31.3
|Nov high C = 29.9
|Dec high C = 28.8
|year high C = 30.3
|Jan mean C = 25.3
|Feb mean C = 25.5
|Mar mean C = 26.1
|Apr mean C = 26.8
|May mean C = 27.7
|Jun mean C = 28.5
|Jul mean C = 28.6
|Aug mean C = 28.7
|Sep mean C = 28.6
|Oct mean C = 28.1
|Nov mean C = 27
|Dec mean C = 25.9
|Jan low C = 22.2
|Feb low C = 22.2
|Mar low C = 22.7
|Apr low C = 23.6
|May low C = 24.6
|Jun low C = 25.4
|Jul low C = 25.6
|Aug low C = 25.7
|Sep low C = 25.4
|Oct low C = 24.9
|Nov low C = 24
|Dec low C = 23
|year low C = 24.1
|Jan avg record low C = 19.5
|Feb avg record low C = 19.9
|Mar avg record low C = 20.3
|Apr avg record low C = 21.1
|May avg record low C = 22.1
|Jun avg record low C = 23.1
|Jul avg record low C = 23.1
|Aug avg record low C = 23.3
|Sep avg record low C = 23.2
|Oct avg record low C = 22.8
|Nov avg record low C = 21.6
|Dec avg record low C = 20.5
|year avg record low C = 19.3
|Jan record low C = 16
|Feb record low C = 17
|Mar record low C = 16
|Apr record low C = 18
|May record low C = 19
|Jun record low C = 19
|Jul record low C = 21
|Aug record low C = 20
|Sep record low C = 21
|Oct record low C = 19
|Nov record low C = 18
|Dec record low C = 17
|year record low C = 16
|rain colour =
|Jan rain mm = 95.5
|Feb rain mm = 60.7
|Mar rain mm = 49.5
|Apr rain mm = 118.9
|May rain mm = 149.9
|Jun rain mm = 112
|Jul rain mm = 128.8
|Aug rain mm = 138.7
|Sep rain mm = 146.6
|Oct rain mm = 142
|Nov rain mm = 161.3
|Dec rain mm = 127.5
|year rain mm = 1431.3
|Jan sun = 237.4 |Jan percentsun = 69
|Feb sun = 231.2 |Feb percentsun = 72
|Mar sun = 282.0 |Mar percentsun = 76
|Apr sun = 268.3 |Apr percentsun = 71
|May sun = 255.2 |May percentsun = 63
|Jun sun = 259.4 |Jun percentsun = 65
|Jul sun = 280.8 |Jul percentsun = 69
|Aug sun = 267.8 |Aug percentsun = 68
|Sep sun = 234.7 |Sep percentsun = 64
|Oct sun = 227.2 |Oct percentsun = 63
|Nov sun = 202.4 |Nov percentsun = 60
|Dec sun = 217.4 |Dec percentsun = 64
|year percentsun = 67
|Jan humidity = 74.0
|Feb humidity = 72.4
|Mar humidity = 71.0
|Apr humidity = 71.3
|May humidity = 74.9
|Jun humidity = 75.5
|Jul humidity = 75.9
|Aug humidity = 76.4
|Sep humidity = 76.4
|Oct humidity = 76.9
|Nov humidity = 76.2
|Dec humidity = 74.7
|year humidity =74.6
|source 1 = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|NOAA]] (relativna vlažnost in osončenost 1961–1990)<ref name=NOWData>
{{navedi splet
| url = http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=sju
| title = San Juan, PR
| work = NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data
| publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
| accessdate = 27.6.2013
}}</ref><ref name="NOAA txt">{{cite web |url=ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/normals/1981-2010/products/station/RQW00011641.normals.txt |publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |title=Station Name: SAN JUAN L M MARIN AP |deadurl=no |accessdate=13.5.2014}}</ref><ref name = NOAAsun >{{navedi splet
| url = ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/TABLES/REG_IV/US/GROUP4/78526.TXT
| title = WMO Climate Normals for SAN JUAN/ISLA VERDE INT'L ARP,PR 1961–1990
| publisher = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
| accessdate = 10.3.2014}}</ref>, [[The Weather Channel]]<ref name=TWC>
{{navedi splet
| url = http://www.weather.com/outlook/homeandgarden/garden/wxclimatology/monthly/USPR0087
| title = Monthly Averages for San Juan, PR – Temperature and Precipitation
| accessdate = 16.4.2011
| work = [[The Weather Channel]]
}}</ref>
}}
 
== Mednarodne povezave ==
San Juan ima uradne povezave (pobratena/sestrska mesta oz. mesta-dvojčki) z naslednjimi kraji po svetu:
 
;Lokalno
*{{flagicon|US}} [[Honolulu, Havaji]]
*{{flagicon|US}} [[Jacksonville, Florida]]
*{{flagicon|US}} [[Killeen, Teksas]]
 
;Mednarodno
*{{flagicon|ESP}} [[Cádiz]], [[Spain]]
*{{flagicon|COL}} [[Cartagena]], [[Kolumbija]]
*{{flagicon|GUA}} [[Ciudad Guatemala]], [[Gvatemala]]
*{{flagicon|UAE}} [[Dubaj]], [[Združeni arabski emirati]]
*{{flagicon|PHI}} [[San Juan, Metro Manila|San Juan]], [[Filipini]]
*{{flagicon|DOM}} [[Santiago de los Caballeros|Santiago]], [[Dominikanska republika]]
 
== Opombe ==
{{sklici|group=lower-alpha}}
 
== Sklici ==
{{sklici|2}}
 
== Zunanje povezave ==