Muslimani: Razlika med redakcijama

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{{about|prerok Islama|drugi ljudje z imenom Mohamed|Mohamed (ime) |druge rabe|Mohamed(dizambiguacija)}}
[[Slika:Prayer in Cairo 1865.jpg|thumb|250px|Molitev v [[Kairo|Kairu]], 1865]]
{{Infobox person
'''Muslimáni''' ([[arabščina|arabsko]]مسلمان - ''predani bogu'') ali tudi '''mohamedánci''' (po njihovem [[prerok]]u [[Mohamed]]u) so privrženci oziroma [[vernik]]i [[islam]]a. Izraz mohamedanci je muslimanom pripisal [[Zahod|zahodni]] svet in poskuša vzpostaviti nekakšno vzporednico [[krščanstvo|krščanstvu]], ki pa ne vzdrži kritike. Kristjani namreč častijo [[Jezus Kristus|Kristusa]] in njegovo božjo naravo, religija in verniki pa se po njem imenujejo. Ravno zaradi tega izraz mohamedanci ne ustreza - muslimani namreč ne častijo Mohameda, niti mu ne pripisujejo božje narave, temveč ga zgolj spoštujejo kot preroka, tako kot spoštujejo Jezusa, Marijo, Janeza Krstnika, Mojzesa, Abrahama, Noeta in ostale. Poleg teh, muslimani smatrajo tudi Adama kot preroka.
| honorific_prefix = {{smaller|[[Preroki v Islamu|Prerok Islama]]}}
| name = Mohamed
| honorific_suffix =
| image = Mohammad SAV.svg | image_size =
| caption = {{longitem|Običajna kaligrafska predstavitev<br/>Mohamedovega imena}}
| birth_name = Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh
| birth_date = okoli 570 n.št.
| birth_place = {{longitem|[[Meka]], [[Arabija]]<br/>{{smaller|(dandanašnja [[Saudska Arabija]])}}}}
| death_date = {{nowrap|8 junija 632 n.št. {{smaller|(star 62 ali 63 let)}}}}
| death_place = {{longitem|[[Medina]], [[Hejaz]], [[Arabija]]<br/>{{smaller|(dandanašnja [[Saudska Arabija]])}}}}
| death_cause = | body_discovered = | monuments =
| resting_place = {{longitem|style=white-space:nowrap; |Grob pod Zeleno kupolo<br/>[[Al-Masjid an-Nabawi]] v Medini,<br/>Hejaz, dandanašnja Saudska Arabija}}
| other_names = {{ubl|style=line-height:1.3em; |''Abu al-Qasim'' {{smaller|([[Kunya (Arabščina)|Kunya]])}} |''Rasul'' {{smaller|("Poslanec")}} |"Prerok" |{{nowrap|{{smaller|''(glej [[Imena in nazivi Mohameda]])''}}}}}}
| ethnicity = [[Adnanit]] [[Arabci|Arabec]]
| years_active = {{longitem|style=white-space:nowrap; |583-609 n.št.{{smaller|kot trgovec}}<br/>609-632 n.št.{{smaller|kot verski vodja}}}}
| notable_works = ''[[Suna]]''
| employer = {{smaller|(kot trgovec)}}{{nbsp|2}}[[Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib|Abu Talib]] |[[Khadija bint Khuwaylid|Khadija]]
| predecessor = {{nowrap|{{smaller|(kot prerok:)}}{{nbsp|2}}[[Jesus in Islam|Isa ibn Maryam (Jezus)]]}}
| successor =
{{Infobox |bodystyle={{infobox subbox bodystyle}}
|labelstyle=padding:0;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;white-space:nowrap;
|datastyle=padding:0;font-size:90%;white-space:nowrap;
|label1=[[Abu Bakr]] |data1=(as [[Sunni Islam|Sunni]] ''[[Ummah]]'' leader)
|label2=[[Ali]] |data2=(kot [[Šia|šiitski]] Imam)
|label3=[[Mahdi]] |data3=(kot "Odrešenik Islama")
}}
| opponents = [[Pleme Quraysh]]{{nbsp|2}}{{smaller|(609–630 n.št)}}
| religion = [[Islam]]
| spouse =
{{Infobox |bodystyle={{infobox subbox bodystyle}}
|labelstyle=padding:0;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;white-space:nowrap;
|datastyle=padding:0;font-size:90%;white-space:nowrap;
|label1={{larger|'''[[Mohamedove žene|žena]]'''}} |data1={{larger|'''Poročen'''}}
|label2=[[Khadijah bint Khuwaylid]] |data2=595–619
|label3=[[Sawda bint Zamʿa]] |data3=619–632
|label4=[[Aisha|Aisha bint Abi Bakr]] |data4=619–632
|label5=[[Hafsa bint Umar]] |data5=624–632
|label6=[[Zaynab bint Khuzayma]] |data6=625–627
|label7=[[Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya|Hind bint Abi Umayya]] |data7=629–632
|label8=[[Zaynab bint Jahsh]] |data8=627–632
|label9=[[Juwayriya bint al-Harith]] |data9=628–632
|label10=[[Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan]] |data10=628–632
|label11=[[Rayhana bint Zayd]] |data11=629–631
|label12=[[Safiyya bint Huyayy]] |data12=629–632
|label13=[[Maymuna bint al-Harith]] |data13=630–632
|label14=[[Maria al-Qibtiyya]] |data14=630–632
}}
| parents = {{longitem|style=white-space:nowrap; |[[Abd Allah ibn Abd al Muttalib|`Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Muttalib]] {{smaller|(oče)}}<br/>[[Aminah]] {{smaller|(mati)}}}}
| children =
{{unbulleted list |style=line-height:1.25em;
| '''Sinovi''':[[Qasim ibn Muhammad|Qasim]], [[Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad|Abd-Allah]], [[Ibrahim ibn Muhammad|Ibrahim]]
| '''Hčere''':[[Zainab bint Muhammad|Zainab]] [[Ruqayyah bint Muhammad|Ruqayyah]] [[Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad|Umm Kulthoom]] [[Fatimah|Fatimah Zahra]]
}}
| sorodniki = [[Ahl al-Bayt]]{{nbsp|2}}{{smaller|("Družina Hiše")}}
}}
{{Mohamed}}
 
'''Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim''' ({{lang-ar|ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم}}; okoli 570&nbsp;– okoli 8 junij 632),<ref name=Goldman>Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63 navaja 8 Junij 632, ki v tradiciji Islama prevladuje. Mnoga zgodnejša, v glavnem ne-islamska sporočila ,trdijo, da je bil še živ, ko je prišlo do invazije na Palestino. Glej Stephen J. Shoemaker,''The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of [[Islam]],'' University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.</ref> tudi transliterirano kot '''Mohamed''' ({{lang|ar|محمد}}), je bil mož iz [[Meka|Meke]], ki je z [[Islam]]om dal [[Arabija|Arabiji]] enotno versko podobo. [[Musliman]]i in [[Baha'i]]ji verujejo, da je [[apostol (Islam) | poslanec]] in [[prerok]] [[Bog Islama | Bog]]a, muslimani poleg tega skoraj vsi verujejo, da je [[Khatim do Nabuwwah | poslednji prerok]], ki jih je Bog poslal človeštvu.<ref>{{cite quran|33|40|style=ns}}</ref><ref group="n">Da je Mohamed poslednji prerok, ne verujejo vsi muslimani. Na primer, muslimanska skupnost Ahmadija vidi preroka tudi v [[Mirza Ghulam Ahmad]]u. [[Nation of Islam|Islamsko ljudstvo]] veruje, da je [[Elijah Muhammad]] prerok (vir: African American Religious Leaders – Page 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson – 2008). Gibanje Združeni Mednarodni Podložniki (United Submitters International) vidi preroka v Rashadu Khalifu. (Vir: Daniel Pipes, ''Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics'', page 98 (2004) ({{cite web|url=http://www.alislam.org/books/truth/finality.html|title=Finality of Prophethood {{!}} Hadhrat Muhammad (PUBH) the Last Prophet|publisher=[[Ahmadiyya Muslim Community]]}})</ref> Ne-muslimani obravnavajo Mohameda kot ustanovitelja Islama,<ref>{{cite book |title=Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice |last=Morgan |first=Diane |coauthors= |year=2009 |isbn=978-0313360251 |page=101 |pages= |url=http://books.google.com/?id=U94S6N2zECAC&pg=PA101&dq=non-Muslims+Muhammad+%22founder+of+islam%22#v=onepage&q=non-Muslims%20Muhammad%20%22founder%20of%20islam%22&f=false |accessdate=4 July 2012}}</ref> Muslimani v njem vidijo osebo, ki je vzpostavila nespremenjeno prvotno [[monoteizem | monoteistično]] vero in islamski pogled na Adama, Noeta, Abrahama, Jezusa in druge preroke. <ref name="espos12">Esposito (1998), p. 12.</ref><ref>Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Peters|first=F.E.|title=Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians|year=2003|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=0-691-11553-2|page=9}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Esposito|first=John|title=Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.)|year=1998|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-511234-4|pages=9, 12}}</ref>
Izraz »musliman« izhaja iz množinske oblike besede ''muslim'' (torej iz ''musulmaan''), sicer pa je v [[etimologija|etimološkem]] sorodu z besedami, ki izhajajo iz slovničnega korena ''s-l-m'', kot npr. ''islaam'' ali ''salaam'' (»mir«; tudi običajen pozdrav). Musliman pomeni »božji [[vazal]]«, oziroma »tisti, ki se pokori oz. preda« (bogu). Imajo tudi svojo sveto knjigo [[Koran]]. Verujejo, da naj bi Mohamed izgovarjal Koran, vendar ne pisal, kot mnogi zmotno mislijo, ki mu ga je narekoval Bog (ar. - Allah) preko nadangela Gabriela(ar. - Džibril). Beseda Allah je isti Bog kot tisti, ki ga je omenjal Jezus, Mojzes, Abraham in ostale osebnosti iz Svetega Pisma. Allah je samo arabsko ime edinega Boga, ne pa (samo) »muslimanski bog«, kot se na zahodu običajno zmotno misli.
 
Mohamed se je rodil 570 n. št, v [[Meka|Meki]] na [[Arabski polotok | Arabskem polotoku]] ,<ref name="abraha">
Koran je v svojem bistvu zelo soroden Svetemu Pismu, še v samem Koranu se omenja, da je (Koran) razodet zato, da bi ljudje razločili izvorno Sveto Pismo in židovsko Toro od izkrivljenih različic, ki so s časom nastale.
* {{cite journal | doi = 10.1017/S0041977X00049016 | last1 = Conrad | first1 = Lawrence I. | year = 1987 | title = Abraha and Muhammad: some observations apropos of chronology and literary topoi in the early Arabic historical tradition1 | url = http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=3863868&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0041977X00049016 | journal = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies | volume = 50 | issue = 2 | pages = 225–240}}
* {{Cite book| publisher = G. Bell| last = Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby| title = Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars : with rules and tables and explanatory notes on the Julian and Gregorian calendars|year=1901| url = http://archive.org/details/elementsofjewish00burnuoft | page=465}}
* {{Cite journal| pages = 6–12| last = Hamidullah| first = Muhammad| authorlink=Muhammad Hamidullah|title = The Nasi', the Hijrah Calendar and the Need of Preparing a New Concordance for the Hijrah and Gregorian Eras: Why the Existing Western Concordances are Not to be Relied Upon| journal = The Islamic Review & Arab Affairs| date = February 1969|url=http://aaiil.org/text/articles/islamicreview/1969/02feb/islamicreview_196902.pdf}}</ref><ref name="EncWorldHistory">''Encyclopedia of World History'' (1998), p. 452</ref> v zgodnjem otroštvu je osirotel in odraščal pri [[Abu Talib Ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib | Abu Talib]]u, svojem stricu po očetovi strani. Kasneje je delal večinoma kot trgovec, tudi kot pastir, in se prvič poročil, ko je bil star petindvajset let.<ref name="IntroQuran182">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 182</ref> Imel je navado, občasno se za nekaj noči umakniti v jamo v okoliških hribih, da se v samoti posveti molitvi; kasneje je poročal, da je tam, pri starosti 40 let,<ref name="abraha"/><ref name="IntroQuran184">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 184</ref> doživel obisk [[Gabriel]]a in prejel od Boga svoje prvo razodetje. Tri leta po tem dogodku je Mohamed začel javno [[Dawah | pridigati]] o teh razodetjih in razglašati, da »[[Tawhid | je Bog en sam]]« in da je popolna »predaja« (dobeseden pomen besede ''[[Islam#Etimologija in pomen|islām]]'') edina pot (''[[Din (Arabiski izraz)|dīn]]'')<ref group="n">Za 'Islam' koran vedno uporablja arabsko besedo »dīn«, to je »pot«, ki pa se zaradi lažjega razumevanja običajno prevaja kot »vera«</ref> sprejemljiva za Boga; in da je on sam prerok in glasnik Boga, tako kot so bili pred njim drugi [[Preroki v islamu|islamski preroki]]<ref name = "Peters 2003 9">F. E. Peters (2003), p. 9.</ref><ref name="EspositoI">Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5</ref><ref name="EoI-Muhammad">{{Cite encyclopedia | edition = 2nd| publisher = Brill Academic Publishers| volume = 7| pages = 360–376| last2 = Welch| first2 = A. T.| last1=Buhl | first1 = F.| title = Muḥammad| encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]| isbn = 90-04-09419-9| year = 1993}}</ref>
 
Mohamed je pridobil nekaj [[Sahabah | privržencev]] že takoj na začetku, pri tem pa naletel na sovražnost nekaterih plemen v Meki. Da bi se izognil preganjanju, je Mohamed poslal nekaj svojih pristašev v˙[[kraljestvo Aksum | Etiopijo]], potem pa se leta 622 s svojimi privrženci iz Meke preselil v [[Medina|Medino]] (tedaj pod imenom Yathrib). Ta dogodek, imenovan [[Hijra (Islam) | Hidžra]], zaznamuje začetek [[islamski koledar|islamskega koledarja]], znanega tudi pod imenom koledar po Hidžri.
V Medini je Mohamed združil plemena pod [[ustava Medine|Ustavo Medine]]. Po osmih letih bojev s plemeni iz Meke so njegovi privrženci, katerih število je medtem naraslo na 10.000, na pretežno miren način zavzeli Meko. V mestu je uničil poganske malike,<ref>Sahih-Bukhari, Book 43, #658</ref> nato pa poslal svoje privržence iz mesta, da se uničijo vse poganske templje, kar jih je še bilo najti v vzhodni Arabiji.<ref>Sahih Bukhari Book 59, #641</ref><ref>Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi – The Book of Idols. Prevod Nabih Amin Faris. Princeton University Press, pg. 21–22</ref> 632, nekaj mesecev po vrnitvi v Medino s poslovilnega romanja je Mohamed zbolel in umrl. Ob njegovi smrti je večina [[Arabski polotok|Arabskega polotoka]] prestopila v islam, tako da se je pod njegovim vodstvom Arabija združila v eno samo [[Ummah |versko občestvo]]<ref>"Muhammad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world</ref><ref name="Lapidus 2002 pp 0">See:
* Holt (1977a), p.57
* Lapidus (2002), pp 0.31 and 32
</ref>
 
Razodetja (znana kot »[[Aja]]«, lit.&nbsp;»Znak Boga«), o katerih je Mohamed poročal vse do svoje smrti, so vsebovana v verzih [[Koran]]a; za muslimane predstavljajo »Božjo besedo« in temelj njihove vere. Poleg Korana spoštujejo muslimani Mohamedove nauke in navade (»[[suna]]«), ki jih je najti v [[hadith|izročilih]] ter življenjepisih preroka (»[[Sira]]«) in jih uporabljajo kot vir (»[[šarija|šarije]]«), [[islamsko pravo|islamskega prava]] Muslimani govore o Mohamedu in drugih prerokih islama s spoštovanjem in dodajo vedno, kadar se omeni njih ime, »mir bodi z njim«.<ref name="Ann Goldman 2006 p.212">Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben (2006), p. 212</ref> [[Srednji vek | Srednjeveško]] [[krščanstvo]] in pretekli časi so na Mohameda gledali v veliki meri negativno, [[sodobna zgodovina]] pa je v svojem mnenju veliko bolj ugodna.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref>Watt (1974) p. 231</ref>
{{commonscat|Muslims}}
 
== Imena in nazivi v Koranu ==
{{reli-stub}}
[[File:Muhammad Salat.svg|thumb|right|Ime ''Muhammad'' v pisavi [[Thuluth]], ene od variant [[Islamska kaligrafija|islamske kaligrafije]]]]
 
[[Mohamed (ime) | Ime »Mohamed«]] pomeni »hvale vredni« in se pojavlja štirikrat v Koranu<ref>Jean-Louis Déclais, ''Names of the Prophet'', [[Encyclopedia of the Quran]]</ref> Koran se obrača na Mohameda v drugi osebi, ne z njegovim imenom, temveč z različnimi evfemizmi, kot so: [[Preroki v islamu|prerok]], [[apostol (Islam)|sel]], božji služabnik (»abd«), glasnik (»bashir«) {{Quran-usc| 2 | 119 | q =}}, priča (»shahid«) {{Quran -usc | 33 | 45 | q =}} ki prinaša dobre novice (»mubashshir«), ki svari (»nathir«) {{Quran-usc | 11 | 2 | q =}}, ki opominja (»mudhakkir«) {{Quran-usc | 88 | 21 | q =}}, ki poziva k Bogu] (»da'i«) {{Quran-usc | 12 | 108 | q =}}, poosebljena luč (»noor«) {{Quran-usc | 05 | 15 | q =}} in luč, ki sveti (»siraj munir«) {{Quran-usc | 73 | 1 | Q =}}. Mohameda Koran včasih imenuje posredno z njegovim stanjem v danem trenutku: tako je o njem govora kot o odetem (»Al-Muzzammi«) {{cite quran|73|1|s=ns|b=n}} in v mrliškem prtu (»Al-Muddathir«) {{cite quran|74|1|s=ns|b=n}}.<ref name="EoQ-Muhammad">Uri Rubin, ''Muhammad'', [[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]]</ref> V Koranu naj verniki ne razlikujejo med glasniki Boga in naj verujejo v vse od njih (Sura Al-Baqarah {{cite quran|2|285|s=ns|b=n}}). Bog je storil, da nekateri glasniki izstopajo {{cite quran|2|253|s=ns|b=n}} in v suri [[Al-Ahzab]] {{cite quran|33|40|s=ns|b=n}} Mohameda povzdigne kot »Pečat prerokov«.<ref name="Ernst">Ernst (2004), p. 80</ref> Kuran Mohameda tudi imenuje kot »Ahmad«, to je »Hvalevrednejši« ({{lang-ar | أحمد}}, Sura [[As-Saff]] {{cite quran|61|6|s=ns|b=n}}).
[[Kategorija:Islam]]
 
== Viri za življenje Mohameda ==
{{main|Historiografija zgodnjega Islama|Zgodovinskost Mohameda}}
 
===Koran===
[[File:Folio from a Koran (8th-9th century).jpg|thumb|left|Folio iz zgodnjega korana v Kufski pisavi ([[Abasid]]ska doba, 8-9 stoletje).]]
[[Koran]] je osrednje versko besedilo v [[Islam]]u in muslimani verjamejo, da predstavlja besede boga, kot jih je Mohamedu razkril nadangel [[Gabriel]]. <ref name="Britannica">{{cite encyclopedia|last=Nasr |first=Seyyed Hossein | authorlink=Seyyed Hossein Nasr | title=Qurʾān |year=2007| encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica Online | accessdate=September 24, 2013|location=|publisher=|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/487666/Quran}}</ref><ref name = LivRlgP338>''Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths,'' Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.</ref><ref name = QuranC17V106>{{Quran-usc|17|106|style=nosup}}</ref>
 
Čeprav se Mohamed omenja neposredno le štirikrat,<ref>{{cite book |title=Muslims: their religious beliefs and practices
|last=Rippin |first=Andrew |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-415-34888-1 |page=45 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=4TQ5yvnpwBAC&pg=PA324&dq=quran+muhammad+biography#v=onepage&q=four%20times&f=false |accessdate=15 June 2011}}</ref>{{Quran-usc|3|144|q=}}{{Quran-usc|33|40|q=}}{{Quran-usc|47|2|q=}}{{Quran-usc|48|29|q=}} obstajajo verzi, ki jih je mogoče razumeti kot namige na življenje Mohameda.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="Nigosian6" group="n">S. A. Nigosian(2004), p. 6 »[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]« pravi, da Koran »stalno in pogosto odkrito [odgovarja} na spreminjajoče se zgodovinske okoliščine okoli Mohameda in vsebuje veliko skritih podatkov«.</ref> Koran pa je le malo v pomoč pri kronološkem življenjepisu Mohameda, in številnim v njem zabeleženim govorom manjka zgodovinski kontekst.<ref name="Bennett1998a">{{cite book|author=Clinton Bennett|title=In search of Muhammad|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=-VTIkkcUFHQC&pg=PA18|year=1998|publisher=Continuum International Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-304-70401-9|pages=18–19}}</ref><ref name="Peters1994">{{cite book|author=Francis E. Peters|title=Muhammad and the origins of Islam|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Jrq6boXdJOAC&pg=PA261|year=1994|publisher=SUNY Press|isbn=978-0-7914-1876-5|page=261}}</ref>
 
===Zgodnji življenjepisi ===
{{Main | preroška biografija}}
Naslednja po pomembnosti so zgodovinska dela pisateljev v 2. in 3. stoletju muslimanskega koledarja (AH - po Hidžri, to je 8. in 9. stoletje n. št.).<ref name="Watt-Mecca-xi">Watt (1953), p.xi</ref> Med drugim so to tradicionalni muslimanski življenjepisi Mohameda (literatura »sira«), v katerih je najti dodatne informacije o njegovem življenju.<ref name="Reeves">Reeves (2003), pp. 6–7</ref>
 
Najstarejša ohranjena zapisana »sira« (življenjepisi Mohameda in citati, ki mu jih pripisujejo) je »Življenje božjega sela«, ki ga je napisal [[Ibn Ishaq]] okoli leta 767 (150 AH). Čeprav se je delo izgubilo, sta to siro, v precejšnji meri dobesedno, navajala [[Ibn Hisham]] in [[Mohamed Ibn Jarir al-Tabari|Al-Tabari]].<ref name="Nigosian6">S. A. Nigosian(2004), p. 6</ref><ref>Donner (1998), p. 132</ref> Druga zgodaj vir je zgodovina Mohamedovih kampanj, katere avtor je [[al-Waqidi]] (umrl leta 207 muslimanske dobe), in delo izpod peresa njegovega tajnika [[Ibn al Sa'd -Baghdadi]]ja (umrl leta 230 muslimanske dobe).<ref name="Watt-Mecca-xi"/>
 
Mnogi znanstveniki se strinjajo, da so prve biografije natančne, čeprav njih točnosti ni mogoče zagotoviti.<ref name="Nigosian6"/> V nedavnih študijah so znanstveniki začeli razlikovati med tradicijo, ki se tiče pravnih zadev, in tradicijo, ki je zgolj zgodovinske narave. V prvem primeru bi lahko šlo za tradicije, ki se jih je izumljalo, v drugem primeru pa, z izjemami, za snov, ki je bila kvečjemu predmet »tendencioznega oblikovanja«.<ref>Watt (1953), p.xv</ref>
 
===Hadith===
{{Main | Hadith}}
Zbirke [[hadith]] so dodatni zapisi ustnih in fizičnih tradicij o Mohamedu iz časov več generacij po njegovi smrti.<ref name="Lewis 1993, pp. 33–34">Lewis (1993), pp. 33–34</ref>
 
Zahodni akademiki so glede zbirk hadith skeptični, kar se njihove zgodovinske točnosti tiče.<ref name="Lewis 1993, pp. 33–34"/> V kasnejših obdobjih zapisanih pripovedi strokovnjaki ne odklanjajo, vendar pa o njih sodijo v zgodovinskem kontekstu in na podlagi njihove skladnosti z dogodki in osebami.<ref>Madelung (1997), pp.xi, 19 and 20</ref>
 
== Predislamska Arabija ==
[[File:Tribes english.png|thumb|right|Glavna plemena in naselbine na Arabskem polotoku za časa Mohameda]]
{{main|Predislamska Arabija|Jahiliyyah|Arabska mitologija}}
 
[[Arabski polotok]] je v glavnem sušen in vulkanski, tako da je razen v bližini oaz ali vodnih virov težko kmetovati. Krajina je bila posuta z vasmi in mesti; med njimi sta bila najbolj pomembna [[Meka]] in [[Medina]]. Medina je bilo veliko cvetoče kmetijsko naselje, Meka pa je bila pomembno finančno središče za številna okoliška plemena.<ref name="Muhammad-Mecca-12">Watt (1953), pp.1–2</ref> Življenje v skupnosti je bistvenega pomena za preživetje v puščavskih pogojih, saj pomaga domorodnim plemenom v boju s krutim okoljem in načinom življenja. Plemensko ureditev je spodbujala nujnost, delovati kot enota, katere enotnost je temeljila na krvnem sorodstvu.<ref>Watt (1953), pp. 16–18</ref> Avtohtoni Arabci so bili bodisi [[nomad]]i bodisi stalno naseljeni; prvi so se stalno selili iz kraja v kraj, iščoč vodo in pašo za svoje črede, drugi pa so se držali svojega kraja in se ukvarjali s trgovino in kmetovanjem. Preživetje je pri nomadih bilo odvisno tudi od napadov na karavane in na oaze, ki zanje niso pomenili kaznivega dejanja.<ref name="Rue">Loyal Rue, ''Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological'',2005, p.224</ref><ref name="Esposito4">John Esposito, ''Islam'', Expanded edition, Oxford University Press, p.4–5</ref>
 
Politično je bila Arabija takrat razdeljena na dve plemenski konfederaciji, na [[Qais | Banu Qais]], ki je bila ohlapno povezana z [[Bizanc]]em in ki je prvotno bila močna na severu in zahodu Arabskega polotoka, in na [[Banu Kalb]], ki je prvotno izvirala iz Jemna in ki je bila ohlapno povezana s [[Sasanid]]sko Perzijo. Ta rivalstva je Islam zatrl, so pa v po-islamskih časih dalje vplivala na dogajanja na Bližnjem vzhodu in v severni Afriki.
 
V pred-islamski Arabiji so bili na bogove in boginje gledali kot na zaščitnike posameznih plemen, njih duhovi so bili povezani s svetimi drevesi, kamni, izviri in vodnjaki. Poleg svoje vloge kot prizorišča letnega romanja, je svetišče [[Kaaba]] v Meki hranilo 360 kipov-malikov, ki so predstavljali božanske zaščitnike plemen. Tri boginje so bile povezane z Alahom kot njegove hčere: [[állat]], [[manat]] in [[al-'Uzza]]. V Arabiji so obstajale monoteistične skupnosti, med drugim kristjani in Judje.<ref>See:
* Esposito, ''Islam'', Extended Edition, Oxford University Press, pp.5–7
* Quran 3:95</ref [[Hanif]]e – domorodne pred-islamske Arabce, ki so »izpovedovali togo monoteizem« <ref>{{cite book|last=Ueberweg|first=Friedrich|title=History of Philosophy, Vol. 1: From Thales to the Present Time|publisher=Charles Scribner's Sons|page=409|url=http://books.google.com/?id=GZfL4GsU3JAC&pg=PA409&dq=Hanifs&cd=2#v=onepage&q=Hanifs&f=false|isbn=9781440043222}}</ref> - se poleg Judov in kristjanov pogosto omenja v okviru pred-islamske Arabije, čeprav je njihova zgodovinskost med znanstveniki sporna.<ref>Kochler (1982), p.29</ref><ref>cf. Uri Rubin, ''Hanif'', Encyclopedia of the Qur'an</ref> Po muslimanskem izročilu je Mohamed sam bil po rodu Hanif in eden od potomcev [[Abraham]]ovega sina [[Ishmael]]a.<ref>See:
* Louis Jacobs(1995), p.272
* Turner (2005), p.16</ref>
 
== Življenje ==
 
===Življenje v Meki===
<---{{clear right}}{{Muhammad timeline in Mecca}} --->
{{main|Mohamed v Meki}}
Mohamed se je rodil v Meki in tam preživel prvih kakih 52 let svojega življenja (ok. 570–622). Ta čas običajno delijo na obdobje pred in obdobje po razglasitvi njegovih preroških videnj.
 
====Otroštvo in zgodnja leta====
{{see also|Mawlid|Družinsko drevo Mohameda}}
Mohamed se je rodil okoli leta 570<ref name="abraha"/> in za [[Mawlid | njegov rojstni dan]] se verjame, da je v mesecu [[Rabi 'al-awwal].]<ref>{{cite book |title=The Oxford Dictionary of Islam |last=Esposito |first=John L. (ed.) |coauthors= |year=2003 |isbn=978-0195125580 |page=198 |pages= |url=http://books.google.com/?id=E324pQEEQQcC&pg=PA198&dq=muhammad+birthday+Rabi%27+al-awwal#v=onepage&q=muhammad%20birthday%20Rabi%27%20al-awwal&f=false |accessdate=19 June 2012}}</ref> Pripadal je klana [[Banu Hashim]], družina je bila ena uglednih družin Meke, čeprav se zdi, da je v njegovih zgodnjih letih spadala med manj uspešne.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref>See also {{cite quran|43|31|s=ns}} cited in EoI; Muhammad</ref> Klan Banu Hashim je pripadal plemenu [[Quraysh]]. Tradicija postavlja letnico rojstva Mohameda v leto slonov, ki je dobila ime po neuspelem napadu tega leta s strani [[kraljestvo Aksum |aksumskega kralja]] Abraha, ki je svojo vojsko dopolnil s sloni. Raziskave iz 20. stoletja za ta dogodek predlagajo druge ćase, kot na primer 568 ali 569.<ref name="Watt7">Watt (1974), p. 7.</ref>
 
<!------------
OPOZORILO:
Do soglasja, da se vključi sliko Mohameda, je prišlo po obsežnih, mesece trajajočih pogovorih in prizadevanjih, da se številne nasprotujoče si interese pametno in pravično uteži. Prosim ne odstranjuj in tudi ne prestavljaj te slike, ker morda čutiš, da niso po tvoji veri. Tudi prosim ne dodajaj novih slik in ne premikaj obstoječih za svoj prav. Da se izognemo brezpredmetnim spremembam in vračanju na začetno stanje, blokiranju in zaščiti strani, se o morebitnih spremembah pogovorimo raje na pogovorni strani. Hvala za tvoj prispevek k Wikipediji.
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<div class="depiction">[[File:Mohammed kaaba 1315.jpg|thumb|left|Miniatura iz [[Rashid-al-Din Hamadani]]'s ''[[Jami al-Tawarikh]]'', okoli 1315}, ki govori o Mohamedovi vlogi pri ponastavitvi Črnega kamna leta 605.<ref>Ali, Wijdan (1999),[http://www2.let.uu.nl/Solis/anpt/ejos/pdf4/07Ali.pdf p. 3]{{dead link|date=September 2012}}</ref>]]</div>
 
Njegov oče, [[Abd Alah ibn Abd al Muttalib | Abdullah]] je umrl skoraj šest mesecev pred Mohamedovim rojstvom. <ref name="Meri2004">{{citation |last=Meri |first=Josef W. |authorlink=Josef W. Meri |title=Medieval Islamic civilization |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=H-k9oc9xsuAC |accessdate=3 January 2013 |volume=1 |year=2004 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-0-415-96690-0 |page=525}}</ref> Po islamskem izročilu so Mohameda kmalu po rojstvu poslali živeti z družino beduinov v puščavi, ker se je mislila, da je življenje v puščavi zdravo za dojenčke. Mohamed je ostal pri svoji krušni materi [[Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb]] in njenem možu, dokler ni bil star dve leti.<ref name="IntroQuran182"/> Nekateri zahodni strokovnjaki islama zgodovinskost tega izročila.zavračajo<ref>Watt, "[http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/halima-bint-abi-dhuayb-SIM_2648 Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb]", ''[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]''.</ref> Ko je bil star šest let, je Mohamed izgubil svojo biološko mater [[Aminah bint Wahb | Amino]] zaradi bolezni in postal sirota.<ref name="IntroQuran182"/><ref>Watt, ''Amina'', [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]</ref> Naslednji dve leti je zanj skrbel njegov ded [[Shaiba ibn Hashim | Abd al-Muttalib]] iz klana Banu Hashim, vendar je, ko je Mohamed bil star osem let, tudi njegov ded umrl. Nato je prišel v skrb svojega strica [[Abu Talib Ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib | Abu Talib]]a, novega vodje klana Banu Hashim.<ref name="IntroQuran182"/><ref name="Watt7"/> Zgodovinar islama [[William Montgomery Watt]] pravi, da se v Meki 6. stoletja skrbniki za šibkejše člane plemena niso kaj posebno brigali: "Mohamedovi varuhi so poskrbeli, da ni umrl od lakote, vendar jim je bilo težko storiti kaj več za njega, ker se je klanu Hashim tiste čase zgleda slabo pisalo. "<ref name="Watt8">Watt (1974), p. 8.</ref>
 
Še kot mladoleten je Mohamed spremljal strica na trgovskih potovanjih v [[Sirija|Sirijo]], pri tem pa pridobival izkušnje v trgovskem poklicu, ki je bil za siroto Mohameda edini možen poklic.<ref name="IntroQuran182"/><ref name="Watt8"/> Po islamskem izročilu je Mohamed, kot je bil star devet ali dvanajst, na poti iz Meke v Sirijo, v karavani spoznal krščanskega meniha ali puščavnika z imenom [[Bahira]], ki je napovedal bodočo Mohamedovo pot do božjega preroka.<ref>Armand Abel, ''Bahira'', [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]</ref>
 
O Mohamedu kasneje v mladosti je malo znanega in v odlomkih, ki so na voljo, je težko ločiti zgodovino od legende.<ref name="IntroQuran182"/><ref name="Watt8"/> Znano je, da je postal trgovec in da se je.»ukvarjal s trgovino od Indijskega oceana do Sredozemskegha morja.«<ref name="BerkWorldHistory">''Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History'' (2005), v.3, p. 1025</ref> Zaradi svojega pokončnega značaja so mu začeli praviti »al-Amin« (arabsko: الامين), kar pomeni »zanesljiv, vreden zaupanja« in »al-Sadiq«, to je »resnicoljuben«,<ref>{{cite book |last1= Khan |first1= Majid Ali |title= Muhammad the final messenger |edition=1998 |page=332|year=1998|publisher=Islamic Book Service |location=India|isbn= 81-85738-25-4|ref=}}</ref> ter se obračati nanj kot na nepristranskega posrednika.<ref name="EncWorldHistory"/><ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref>Esposito (1998), p. 6</ref> Njegov sloves mu je leta 595 prislužil ženitno ponudbo štiridesetletne vdove [[Khadijah bint Khuwaylid|Khadijah]]. Mohamed je privolil v poroko, ki je v vseh pogledih bila srečna.<ref name="IntroQuran182"/><ref name="BerkWorldHistory"/>
 
Nekaj ​​let kasneje, kot piše v pripovedih, ki jih je zbral zgodovinar [[Ibn Ishaq]], je Mohamed bil vpleten v dobro znano zgodbo o tem, kako so leta 605 n. št. vstavili Črni kamen nazaj v steno Kaabe. Črni kamen, svetinjo, so bili med obnovitvenimi deli na Kaabi odstranili. Voditelji Meki se niso mogli dogovoriti, kateri klana naj bi imel čast, črni kamen vgraditi nazaj na svoje mesto. Dogovorili so se, da počakajo na naslednjega prišleka, ki bo prišel skozi vrata v mesto, in ga prosili, da on odloči. Ta človek je bil 35-letni Mohamed, pet let pred svojim prvim razodetjem. Prosil je za kos blaga in črni kamen položil na njegovo sredo. Voditelji klana so prijeli za rob blaga in Črni kamen skupaj prenesli na njegovo mesto, kjer ga je Mohamed nato vstavil in na ta način zadostil časti vseh vpletenih.<ref name="Dairesi">{{cite book|title=The sacred trusts: Pavilion of the Sacred Relics, Topkapı Palace Museum, Istanbul|editor=Uğurluel, Talha|editor2=Doğru, Ahmet|author1=Dairesi, Hırka-i Saadet|author2=Aydın, Hilmi|publisher=Tughra Books|year=2004|isbn=978-1-932099-72-0}}</ref>
 
===Začetki Korana ===
{{see also|Muhammad's first revelation|History of the Quran|Wahy}}
[[File:Cave Hira.jpg|right|upright|thumb|Jama [[Hira]] na gori [[Jabal al-Nour]] kjer je, kot verujejo muslimani, Mohamed doživel svoje prvo razodetje.]]
Mohamed se je navadil vsako leto nekaj tednov moliti na samem v jami na [[Hira |gori Hira]] blizu Meke.<ref>Emory C. Bogle (1998), p.6</ref><ref>John Henry Haaren, Addison B. Poland (1904), p.83</ref> Po islamskem izročilu se je Mohamedu leta 610 pri enem od teh obiskov na gori Hira prikazal angel [[Gabriel]] in mu ukazal, da recitira verze, ki so kasneje postali del Korana.<ref>Brown (2003), pp. 72–73</ref> Obstaja soglasje, da so prve razodete besede Korana bile začetek Surah {{Cite quran|96|1|s=ns|b=n}}.<ref name="EI2-Wahy">{{Cite encyclopedia | edition = 2nd| publisher = Brill Academic Publishers| volume = 11| pages = 54| first = A.J.| last = Wensinck | first2= A. | last2 = Rippen |title = Waḥy | encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]| year = 2002 |isbn=9004127569}}</ref>
Po svojem prvem razodetju je bil Mohamed v globoki stiski. Ko se je vrnil domov, ga je Khadijah, skupaj s svojim krščanskim bratrancem ([[ibn Nawfal Waraqah]]), potolažila in pomirila.<ref name=autogenerated1>Esposito (2010), p.8</ref> Bal se je tudi, da bodo drugi njegove trditve zavrnili, češ da je obseden.<ref name=Esposito4/> Šiitsko izročilo trdi, da Mohamed ni bil ne presenečen ne prestrašen, ko se mu je prikazal Gabriel, temveč da je angela pozdravil, kot da ga je pričakoval.<ref>''See:''
* Emory C. Bogle (1998), p.7
* Razwy (1996), ch. 9
* Rodinson (2002), p. 71.</ref> Po prvem razodetju je sledil premor treh let (obdobje, znano kot »Fatra«), Mohamed se je ta čas počutil pobit in se je predajal molitvi in duhovnim vajam.<ref name=EI2-Wahy /> Ko so se razodetja nadaljevala, ga je angel pomiril in mu ukazal, da začne pridigati: »Tvoj varuh in gospod te ni zapustil, tudi nevšečen mu nisi.«<ref>{{cite quran|93|3|s=ns}}</ref><ref>Brown (2003), pp. 73–74</ref><ref>Uri Rubin, ''Muhammad'', [[Encyclopedia of the Quran]]</ref>
<div class="depiction">
[[File:Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel.jpg|thumb|left|Slika Mohameda, ko prejema prvo razodetje od angela Gabriela. Rokopis »[[Jami' al-tawarikh]]«, avtor [[Rashid-al-Din Hamadani]], 1307]]
</div>
[[Sahih Bukhari]] pripoveduje , da je Mohamed opisal razodetja kot »da so včasih kot zvonjenje zvona«. [[Aisha]] je povedala: »Bila sem priča, kako je bog nekega zelo mrzlega dne navdihnil preroka in kako mu je znoj kapljal s čela (ko je navdiha bilo konec)«.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cmje.org/religious-texts/hadith/bukhari/001-sbt.php |title=Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement |publisher=Cmje.org |date= |accessdate=26 January 2012}}</ref> Po [[Alford T. Welch | Welchu]] lahko te zapise imamo za resnične, saj je malo verjetno, da bi si jih muslimani kasneje ponaredili.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> Mohamed je bil prepričan, da svoje misli lahko razlikuje od teh sporočil.<ref>Watt, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'' (1977), p. 31.</ref> Po Koranu je ena glavnih vlog Mohameda bila, opozoriti nevernike na njihovo eshatološko kazen (koran {{cite quran|38|70|s=ns|b=n}}, koran {{cite quran|6|19|s=ns|b=n}}). Občasno se Koran ne sklicuje izrecno na sodni dan, ampak navaja primere iz zgodovine izumrlih skupnosti, in opozarja Mohamedove sodobnike na podobne katastrofe {{cite quran|41|13|e=16|s=ns|b=n}}).<ref name="EoQ-Muhammad"/> Mohamed ni samo karal tiste, ki so zavrnili Božje razodetje, temveč je imel dobre novice za vse, ki so se odpovedali zlu, poslušali božjo besedo in Bogu služili.<ref>Daniel C. Peterson, ''Good News'', [[Encyclopedia of the Quran]]</ref> Poslanstvo Mohameda vključuje tudi pridiganje monoteizma: koran ukazuje Mohamedu, da oznanja in hvali ime Gospoda, in mu naroča, da naj ne časti malikov ali pridružuje Bogu druga božanstva.<ref name="EoQ-Muhammad"/><ref name="IntroQuran185">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 185</ref>
 
Ključne teme zgodnjih verzov Korana so med drugim odgovornost človeka do njegovega ustvarjalca; vstajenje od mrtvih, poslednja sodba z živimi opisi muk v peklu in užitkov v raju; in znamenja Boga v vseh vidikih življenja. Verskih dolžnosti, ki so v tem času zahtevale od vernikov, je bilo malo: verovati v Boga in ga prositi, da naj odpusti grehe, pogosto moliti, pomagati drugim, zlasti ljudem v stiski; odpovedati se je treba goljufiji in ljubezni do bogastva (kar je za trgovsko življenje v Meki bilo pomembno), ostati čist in ne ubijati novorojenih deklic.<ref name = "EoI-Muhammad"/>
 
===Nasprotovanja===
{{see also|Preganjanje muslimanov s strani prebivalcev Meke|Selitev v Etiopijo}}
Po muslimanskem izročilu je Mohamedova žena Khadija prva začela verovati, da je prerok.<ref name="Watt53-86">Watt (1953), p. 86</ref> Kmalu ji je sledil Mohamedov desetletni bratranec [[Ali | Ali Ibn Abi Talib]], dober prijatelj [[Abu Bakr]] in njegov posvojeni sin [[Zayd ibn Harithah | Zaid]].<ref name="IntroQuran184"/><ref name="Watt53-86"/> Okoli 613 je Mohamed začel pridigati javnosti (Koran {{cite quran|26|214|s=ns|b=n}}).<ref>Ramadan (2007), p. 37–9</ref> Večina prebivalcev Meke ga ni jemala resno in se je delala norca iz njega,<ref name="IntroQuran185"/> bilo pa je tudi nekaj spreobrnjencev. Pri zgodnjih spreobrnjencih v islam je šlo za tri glavne skupine: mlajše brate in sinove velikih trgovcev; za ljudi, ki niso bili v prvi vrsti v svojem plemenu ali ki so iz prvih vrst izpadli; in za šibke, večinoma nezaščitene tujce.<ref name = "Cambridge 1977 36">Watt, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'' (1977), p. 36.</ref>
 
[[File:Surat An-Najm.jpg|thumb|right|Zadnja [[ayah]] iz [[sura|sure]] [[An-Najm]] v Koranu: »Vrzi se na obraz pred Allahom in Ga časti.« Sporočilo Muhameda [[monoteizem]] (en sam Bog) je izpodbijalo tradicionalni red.]]
 
Po mnenju Ibn Sada je do nasprotovanj med prebivalci Meke prišlo, ko je Mohamed prišel na dan z verzi, ki so obsojali njih prednike prebivalcev Meke, čaščenje malikov in njih mnogoboštvo.<ref name="IntroQuran185"/><ref>F. E. Peters (1994), p.169</ref> Koranska eksegeza pa vztraja, da je do nasprotovanj prišlo ob prvih javnih pridigah Mohameda.<ref name="Rubin">Uri Rubin,'' Quraysh'', [[Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an]]</ref> Ker je število njegovih privržencev raslo, je postal grožnja lokalnim plemenom in vladarjem v Meki, katerih bogastvo je temeljilo na Kaabi, osrednji točki verskega življenja, ki ga je Mohamed grozil strmoglaviti. Mohamedova obsodba tradicionalne vere v Meki je bila posebej trn v očeh njegovemu lastnemu plemenu [[Quraysh (pleme) | Quraysh]], ki so bili varuhi Ka'abe.<ref name = "Cambridge 1977 36" /> Vplivni trgovci so skušali prepričati Mohameda, da preneha pridigati, in mu kot protiuslugo ponujali mesto v ožjem krogu trgovcev in za njegov položaj v družbi koristno poroko. Zavrnil pa je eno kot drugo.<ref name = "Cambridge 1977 36" />
 
Izročilo na široko poroča o tem, kako so Mohameda in njegove privržence preganjali in mučili. <ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="IntroQuran185"/> [[Sumayyah bint Khabbab]], sužnja vidnega voditelja iz Meke [[Abu Jahl]], je znana kot prva mučenka islama, ki jo je njen gospodar ubil s sulico, ker se ni hotela odpovedati svoji veri. Bilala, enega od muslimanskih sužnjev, je [[Umayyah ibn Khalaf]] skušal na silo prisiliti, da se odpove, na prsi mu je zavalil težko skalo.<ref>Jonathan E. Brockopp, ''Slaves and Slavery'', [[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]]</ref><ref>W. Arafat, ''Bilal b. Rabah'', [[Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref> Mohameda so samo žalili, pred fizičnimi napadi ga je ščitila njegova pripadnost klanu Banu Hashim.<ref name="IntroQuran185"/><ref>Watt (1964) p. 76.</ref><ref>Peters (1999) p. 172.</ref>
 
Leta 615 so nekateri privrženci Mohameda odselili v Etiopsko Aksumitsko cesarstvo in pod zaščito krščanskega etiopskega cesarja [[Aṣḥama ibn Abjar]]ja ustanovili majhno naselbino.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="IntroQuran185"/>
 
Mohamed je obupno želel sprijazniti se s svojim plemenom, bodisi iz strahu, bodisi ker je upal, da bo tako laže uspel; v tem stanju je razglasil verz, ki priznava obstoj treh boginj v Meki, ki naj bi bile Alahove hčere, in v katerem jih prosi, da zastavijo svojo besedo zanj. Mohamed je te verze kasneje na ukaz Gabriela umaknil, kot razlog pa navedel, da mu jih je prišepnil sam hudič.<ref name="IntroQuran185"/><ref>The Cambridge companion to Muhammad (2010), p.35</ref><ref group="n">Zgoraj omenjeni islamski viri navajajo, da je Mohameda med recitiranjem Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), kot mu jo je sporočil [[Nadangel Gabriel]] Satan zapeljal, da je po verzih 19 in 20 rekel naslednje: "Si pomislil na Allāt in drugo al-'Uzzā ter kot Manāt; vzvišene Gharaniq so to, na njih priprošnjo upamo." (Allat, al-'Uzza in Manāt so bile tri boginje, ki so jih častili prebivalci Meke). gl cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p. 166.</ref> Ta epizoda, znana kot »Zgodba o žerjavih« (prevod: {{lang | ar | قصة الغرانيق}}, prečrkovano:»Qissat al Garaniq«) je znana tudi kot »[[Satanski stihi]]«. Nekateri strokovnjaki so iz različnih razlogov izpodbijali zgodovinsko verodostojnost teh verzov.<ref>«Koran« v »[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]«, 2. izdaja, Vol. 5 (1986), p. 404</ref> Ta pripetljaj je naletel na zelo razširjeno naklonjenost zgodnjih muslimanov, po 10. stoletju pa iz teoloških razlogov na močna nasprotovanja. Nasprotovanja so bila tako vztrajna, da je odklanjanje teh verzov sčasoma postalo za pravovernega muslimana edino sprejemljivo stališče. <ref>Shahab Ahmed, "Satanic Verses" in the ''[[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]]''.</ref>
 
Leta 617 so voditelji klanov [[Makhzum]] in [[Banu Abd-Shams]], dveh pomembnih rodov v plemenu Quraysh klani, razglasili javni bojkot proti Banu Hashimu, njunemu trgovskemu tekmecu in ga skušali s tem pritiskom prisiliti, da neha ščititi Mohameda. Bojkot je trajala tri leta, a je konec koncev propadel, ker svojega cilja ni dosegel.<ref>F. E. Peters (2003b), p. 96</ref><ref name="Momen">Moojan Momen (1985), p. 4</ref> V tem obdobju je Mohamed lahko pridigal le med svetimi romarskimi meseci, ko so se vse sovražnosti med Arabci prekinile.<ref name="IntroQuran186">Uvod v Koran (1895), p.186</ref>
 
===Isra and Mi'raj===
{{main|Isra and Mi'raj}}
[[File:Al-Aqsa Mosque by David Shankbone.jpg|thumb|left|[[Mošeja Al-Aqsa]], je del zgradb na Tempeljski gori (al-Haram ash-Sharif) v [[Jeruzalem]]u, za katero se verjame, da je »najbolj oddaljena« med mošejami, ki jih je Mohamed med svojim nočnim potovanjem obiskal. Al-Haram ash-Sharif je za muslimane tretji najsvetejši kraj na svetu.<ref name="Grabar2006">{{cite book|author=Oleg Grabar|title=The Dome of the Rock|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=OeIOowshe6EC&pg=PA14|accessdate=26 December 2011|date=1 October 2006|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-02313-0|page=14}}</ref>]]
Islamsko izročilo pravi, da je Mohamed leta 620 doživel »[[Isra in Mi'raj]]«, čudežno potovanje tekom ene same noči, v spremstvu angela [[Gabriel]]a. V prvem delu poti,»Isra«, je baje na krilatem žrebcu (»Buraq«) iz Meke poletel do »najbolj oddaljene« med mošejami (v arabščini: »Masjid al-Aqsa«), ki jo običajno muslimani enačijo z [[Mošeja Al-Aqsa|mošejo Al-Aqsa]] v [[Jerusalem]]u. V drugem delu, ki se imenuje »Mi'raj», je Mohamed baje obiskal [[Jannah | nebesa]] in [[Jahannam | pekel]] in govoril s prejšnjimi preroki, kot so [[Abraham]], [[Mojzes]] in [[Jezus]].<ref name="IntroQuran186"/><ref name="EoIMW"/> [[Ibn Ishaq]], avtor prvega [[Sirah Rasul Allah | življenjepisa Mohameda]], predstavlja ta dogodek kot duhovno izkušnjo, kasnejši zgodovinarji, kot sta [[Mohamed Ibn Jarir al-Tabari | Al-Tabari]] in [[Ibn Kathir]], pa ga vidijo kot fizično potovanje.<ref name="EoIMW">''Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World'' (2003), p. 482</ref>
 
[[Slika: Domeoftherock1.jpg | thumb | desno | Koranski napisi na Kupoli na skali, ki stoji poleg [[Mošeja Al-Aqsa|mošeje Al-Aqsa]], na Tempeljski gori (al-Haram ash-Sharif). Kupola na skali označuje kraj, s katerega se je baje prerok Mohamed vzet [[Jannah | nebesa]].<ref name="BloomBlair2009">{{cite book|author1=Jonathan M. Bloom|author2=Sheila Blair|title=The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=un4WcfEASZwC&pg=PA76|accessdate=26 December 2011|year=2009|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-530991-1|page=76}}</ref>]]
 
Nekateri zahodni islamski učenjaki so mnenja, da je najstarejša muslimanska tradicija razumela potovanje kot pot od svetega prostora v Meki skozi nebesa do nebesnega »al-Baytu L-MaʿMuri« (nebeški prototip Kaaba); kasnejše izročilo pa v njem vidi potovanje Mohameda iz Meke v Jeruzalem.<ref>Sells, Michael. ''Ascension'', [[Encyclopedia of the Quran]].</ref>
 
===Poslednja leta v Meki pred Hijro===
Mohamedova žena Khadijah in njegov stric Abu Talib sta oba umrla v »letu žalosti« 619. S smrtjo Abu Taliba je vodstvo klana Banu Hashim prešlo na Abu Lahaba, ki je bil nepoboljšljiv sovražnik Mohameda. Kmalu zatem je Abu Lahab Mohamedu odtegnil zaščito klana. Mohamed se je tako znašel v smrtni nevarnosti, saj je umik te zaščite pomenil, da krvno maščevanje, če ga kdo ubije, ne bo več veljalo. Mohamed je nato obiskal Ta'if, drugo pomembno arabsko mesto, kjer je skušal najti zaščitnika zase, vendar je bil njegov trud zaman, poleg tega pa se je s tem izpostavil telesni nevarnosti.<ref name = "EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="Momen"/><ref name= "IntroQuran186"/> Prisiljen je bil vrniti v Meko. Mož iz Meke, po imenu Mut'im ibn Adi (in zaščita plemena [[Banu Nawfal]]) sta mu omogočila varno vrnitev v rodno mesto.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="Momen"/><ref name="IntroQuran186" />
 
<!------------
OPOZORILO:
Do soglasja, da se vključi sliko Mohameda, je prišlo po obsežnih, mesece trajajočih pogovorih in prizadevanjih, da se številne nasprotujoče si interese pametno in pravično uteži. Prosim ne odstranjuj in tudi ne prestavljaj te slike, ker morda čutiš, da niso po tvoji veri. Tudi prosim ne dodajaj novih slik in ne premikaj obstoječih za svoj prav. Da se izognemo brezpredmetnim spremembam in vračanju na začetno stanje, blokiranju in zaščiti strani, se o morebitnih spremembah pogovorimo raje na pogovorni strani. Hvala za tvoj prispevek k Wikipediji.
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Tiste dni je bilo veliko ljudi na obisku v Meki, ali poslovno ali pa kot romarji za [[Kaaba|Kaabo]]. Mohamed je ob tej priložnosti začel iskati nov dom zase in svoje privržence. Po več neuspešnih pogajanjih je naletel na zaupanje nekaj moških iz Yathriba (pozneje imenovano Medina).<ref name= "EoI-Muhammad"/> Arabsko prebivalstvo v Yathribu je poznalo monoteizem, prihod preroka, ker je v kraju obstajala judovska skupnost, so pričakovali.<ref name= "EoI-Muhammad" /><ref name="IntroQuran187">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 187</ref> Poleg tega so upali, da jim bosta Mohamed in nova vera uspela prevladati nad Meko, ker so bili na mesto zaradi njegove pomembnosti kot romarskega kraja ljubosumni.<ref name ="IntroQuran187"/> Spreobrnjenci v islam iz skoraj vseh arabskih plemen so prihajali v Medino, in junija naslednjega ponudba leta je petinsedemdeset muslimanov odšlo v Meko na romanje in na srečanje z Mohamedom. Na skrivnem ponočnem sestanku je skupina sklenila »drugo prisego al-`Aqaba«<ref name = "IntroQuran187" /> ali, s stališča orientalistov, »Vojno prisego«<ref>Watt (1974) p. 83</ref> Po prisegah na Aqabah, je Mohamed spodbujal svoje privržence, da se [[Hijra (islam) | izselijo ]] v [[Yathrib]]. Kot že prej pri selitvi v Etiopijo, so Quraysh selitev skušali preprečiti. Vendar pa je skoraj vsem muslimanom uspelo oditi.<ref name = P87>Peterson (2006), pp. 86–9</ref>
 
===Hijra===
{{Muhammad timeline in Medina}}
{{main|Hijra (Islam)}}
Hijra je selitev Mohameda in njegovih privržencev leta 622 n. št. iz Meke v Medino. Septembra 622 je Mohamed dobil opozorilo, da ga bodo skušali umoriti, tako da se je skrivaj izmuznil iz Meke in se s svojimi privrženci preselil v Medino,<ref name="IntroQuran187"/> 320 km (200 km) severno od Meke. Hijra se praznuje vsako leto na prvi dan muslimanskega leta.
 
====Selitev v Medino====
{{main|Mohamed v Medini}}
Poslanstvo, v katerem so bili predstavniki dvanajstih pomembnih klanov iz Medine, je Mohameda povabilo kot neodvisnega tujca v Medino, da jim je na razpolago kot glavni razsodnik za celotno skupnost.<ref name="Cambridge39"/><ref name="Esp">Esposito (1998), p. 17.</ref> Pred 620 je v Yatribu že okoli sto let prihajalo do spopadov, v glavnem med arabskimi in judovskimi prebivalci.<ref name="Cambridge39"/> Nenehni poboji in spori glede iz teh smrti izvirajočih zahtevkov, še posebej po bitki pri Bu'athu, v katero so bili vpleteni vsi klani, so pokazali, da plemensko pojmovanje krvnega maščevanja in očesa za oko ni več smiselno, če ni nekoga z avtoriteto, ki odloča v spornih primerih.<ref name="Cambridge39">Watt, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'', p. 39</ref> Delegacija iz Medine se je v svojem imenu in v imenu svojih sodržavljanov zavezala, da bodo sprejela Mohameda v svojo skupnost in ga ščitila kot enega svojih.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/>
 
Mohamed je svojim privržencem svetoval, da se izselijo v Medino, tako da so skoraj vsi njegovi privrženci zapustili Meko. Izročilo pravi, da so prebivalci Meke bili zaradi odhajanja muslimanov vznemirjeni in da so naklepali Mohameda umoriti. S pomočjo [[Ali]]ja je Mohamed prebivalce Meke, ki so pazili nanj, prevaral in z Abu Bakrom na skrivaj ušel iz mesta.<ref name="IntroQuran187"/><ref>Moojan Momen (1985), p. 5</ref> Leta 622 se je Mohamed preselil v Medino, veliko poljedelsko [[oaza|oazo]]. Privrženci, ki so se skupaj z Mohamedom izselili iz Meke, so postali znan kot »[[muhajirun]]« (izseljenci).<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/>
 
====Nastanek nove politične identitete====
{{main|Ustava iz Medine}}
Da bi razrešil vprašanje dolgoletnih zamer med plemeni v Medini je Mohamed kot prvo sestavil dokument, znan kot [[Ustava iz Medine]], ki je »vzpostavila nekakšno zavezništvo ali federacijo« med osmimi plemeni Medine in muslimanskimi izseljenci iz Meke in ki navaja pravice in dolžnosti vseh državljanov ter odnos med različnimi skupnostmi v Medini (med drugim odnos med muslimani in drugimi skupnostmi, še posebej, kar se [[Jud]]ov in drugih »[[Ljudje knjige|biblijskih rodov]]« tiče).<ref name="Cambridge39"/><ref name="Esp"/> V ustavi iz Medine opredeljena skupnost, »[[Uma]]«, je imela verski značaj, oblikovali pa so jo tudi praktični razlogi, tako da je obdržala bistvene pravne oblike starih arabskih plemen.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> V bistvu je ustanovila prvo islamsko državo.
 
Razglašenih je bilo več odlokov, ki naj bi pridobili številno in premožno judovsko prebivalstvo. Vendar so jih kmalu preklicali, ker so Judje vztrajali na tem, da zadržijo celotno mozaično zakonodajo, in Mohameda, ker ni bil iz Davidovega rodu, niso priznali kot preroka.<ref name="IntroQuran187"/>
 
Prva skupina poganskih spreobrnjencev v islam v Medini so bili klani brez lastnih velikih voditeljev, ki so jih podjarmili sovražni voditelji iz drugih klanov.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 175.</ref> Sledilo jim je pogansko prebivalstvo Medine, ki se je razen nekaterih izjem na splošno odločilo za islam. Kot pravi [[Ibn Ishaq]], je na to vplivalo spreobrnjenje [[Sa'd ibn Mu'adh]]a (vidnega vodja iz Medine).<ref>Watt (1956), p. 177.</ref> Ljudje, ki so se v Medini spreobrnili k Islamu in ki so muslimanskim izseljencem našli zatočišče, so postali znani kot »[[Ansar (Islam)|Ansar]]« (podporniki).<ref name="EoI-Muhammad" /> Mohamed je nato razglasil bratstvo med izseljenci in podporniki in si izbral [[Ali]]ja za lastnega brata.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia | title = Ali ibn Abitalib | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia Iranica | accessdate =25 October 2007|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f8/v1f8a043.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070812205939/http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f8/v1f8a043.html|archivedate=2007-08-12}}</ref>
{{Wikisource|Ustava iz Medine}}
 
{{Quote box |align=left
|quote = <div style="text-align:center;"><poem>
Bog!
Ni boga razen njega,
živega, večnega.
Ne loti se ga ne dremež ne spanec;
pripada mu vse, kar je v nebesih in na zemlji.
Kdo le se lahko se obrača nanj, če ni po njegovi volji?
Ve, kaj je pred njimi in kaj je za njimi,
in vse, kar on ve, razumejo samo
tisto, kar On hoče.
Njegov prestol obsega nebo in zemljo;
njiju ohranjevati ga ne tare,
On je vsevisoki in vseslavni.
</poem></div>
|source = <div style="text-align:center;white-space:nowrap;">—&nbsp; »Verz o prestolu«({{cite quran|2|255|s=ns|b=n}}), razkrit v Medini.<ref name="Arberry1998">{{cite book |author=Arthur John Arberry |title=The Koran: interpreted |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=6beh0aCEznkC |accessdate=27 December 2011 |year=1998 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-283501-7 |page=37}}</ref></div>
}}
 
==== Začetek oboroženih spopadov ====
{{main|Vojaška kariera Mohameda|Seznam Mohamedovih odprav|Bitka v Badru}}
Po njih izselitvi so prebivalci Meke zasegli lastnino muslimanskih izseljencev.<ref>[[Fazlur Rahman]] (1979), p. 21</ref> Brez ekonomskih korenin in dostopnih poklicev so muslimanski odseljenci začeli napadati karavane, kar je vodilo do oboroženega spopada z Meko.<ref name="Lewisw">Lewis (2002), p. 41.</ref><ref>Watt (1961), p. 105.</ref><ref name="IntroQuran188">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p.188</ref> Mohamed je razglasil verze [[Koran]]e, ki muslimanom dovoljuje boriti se z Meko(glej sura [[Al-Hajj]], Koran {{cite quran|22|39|e=40|s=ns|b=n}}).<ref>[[John Kelsay]] (1993), p. 21</ref> S temi napadi so si odseljenci lahko pridobili bogastvo, moč in prestiž, hkrati pa zasledovali svoj končni cilj, da osvojijo Meko.<ref>Watt(1961) p. 105, p. 107</ref><ref name="Lewis2">Lewis (1993), p. 41.</ref>
 
[[File:Masjid al-Qiblatain.jpg|right|thumb|[[Masjid al-Qiblatain]], kjer je Mohamed določil na novo [[Qibla]], to je smer molitve]]
 
Izročilo pravi, da je 11. februarja 624 Mohamed, med molitvij v mošeji [[Masjid al-Qiblatain]] v Medini prejel razodetje od Boga, da med molitvijo biti obrnjen proti Meki in ne proti Jeruzalema. Hkrati z njim so svoj položaj prilagodili tudi njegovi soverniki, kar je bil začetek tradicije, da se vernik med molitvijo obrača proti Meki.<ref name="Watt1974">{{cite book |author=William Montgomery Watt|title=Muhammad: prophet and statesman |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=zLN2hNidLw4C&pg=PA113 |accessdate=29 December 2011 |date=7 February 1974 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-881078-0 |pages=112–114}}</ref> Kot meni Watt, so spremembe niso bile tako nenadne in dokončne, kot pravi izročilo - s tem povezane verze v Koranu ({{cite quran|2|136|s=ns|b=n}}–{{cite quran|2|147|s=ns|b=n}}), se je zdi razkrilo ob različnih časih – kar se pokriva s spremembami v Mohamedovi politični podpori in predstavlja znak, da se je odmaknil od Judov in sprejel bolj arabski pogled.<ref name="Watt1974"/>
 
Marca 624 je Mohamed vodil kakih tristo bojevnikov v napad na karavano trgovcev iz Meke. Muslimani so jim postavili zasedo pri Badru.<ref>Rodinson (2002), p. 164.</ref> Ker je bila z načrtom seznanjena, je karavana muslimanom ušla. <ref name="IntroQuran188"/> Iz Meke so medtem poslali zaščitnico, ki je ugotovila, da je karavana na varnem, in nato zasledila muslimane, da se spopade z njimi. Do bitke pri Badru je prišlo marca 624.<ref>Watt, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'', p. 45</ref> Čeprav so bili številčno na slabšem za več kot trikrat, so muslimani bitko, ki je terjala najmanj petinštirideset nasprotnikov in samo štirinajst njihovih mrtvih, dobili. Uspelo jim je tudi ubiti nasprotnikove voditelje, med drugimi je padel tudi [[Amr Ibn Hisham|Abu Jahl]]<ref>Glubb (2002), pp. 179–186.</ref> Zajeli so sedemdeset ujetnikov, številne med njimi so kmalu zamenjali za bogato odkupnino ali pa osvobodili.<ref name="Lewisw"/><ref name="IntroQuran188"/><ref name="W123">Watt (1961), p. 123.</ref><ref name = "Rodinson 168-9">Rodinson (2002), pp. 168–9.</ref> Mohamed in njegovi privrženci so v zmagi videli potrditev svoje vere,<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> saj je Mohamed zmago pripisal pomoči nevidne množice angelov.<ref name="IntroQuran188189">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p.188 – 189</ref> Verzi v Koranu iz tega časa se za razliko od verzov iz Meke ukvarjajo s praktičnimi težavami vladanja in z vprašanji glede delitve plena.<ref>Lewis(2002), p. 44</ref><ref name="IntroQuran189">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p.189</ref>
 
Zmaga okrepila položaj Mohameda v Medini in pregnala pretekle dvome med njegovimi privrženci.<ref>Russ Rodgers, ''The Generalship of Muhammad: Battles and Campaigns of the Prophet of Allah'' (University Press of Florida; 2012) ch 1</ref> Nasprotovanje je tako postalo manj glasno. Pogani, ki se še niso spreobrnili, so bili zaradi islama zelo zagrenjeni. Dva izmed njih, [[Asma bint Marwan]] in [[Abu 'Afak]], sta spesnila verze, ki so muslimane zasmehovali in žalili. Ubili so ju pripadniki njunega lastnega ali sorodnega klana, tako da do krvnega maščevanja ni prišlo.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 179.</ref>
 
Mohamed je Medine pregnal [[Banu Qaynuqa]], eno treh glavnih judovskih plemen.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> Čeprav jih je Mohamed želel usmrtiti, usmrtil, se [[Abd Alah ibn Ubaiy]], poglavar plemena [[Khazraj]] s tem ni strinjal, tako da so jih samo izgnali v Sirijo, vendar brez njihovega premoženja.<ref name="IntroQuran189"/> Po bitki pri Badru je Mohamed sklenil zavezništva in dogovore o vzajemni pomoči s številnimi beduinskimi plemeni, s katerimi je svojo skupnost zaščitil pred napadi iz severnega dela [[Hejaz]]<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/>
{{clear}}
 
====Spor z Meko ====
[[File:Kabaa.jpg|thumb|The [[Kaaba]] v Meki je dolgo časa igrala večjo gospodarsko in versko vlogo za področje. Sedemnajst mesecev po prihodu Mohameda v Medina je postala muslimanska [[Qibla]], to je smer za molitev ([[salad]]). Kaabo so večkrat obnovili; sedanja struktura, zgrajena leta 1629, je rekonstrukcija prejšnje stavbe iz leta 683<ref name="Peters2005">{{cite book|author=F. E. Peters|title=The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume I: The Peoples of God|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=RsafPfUjC6EC&pg=PA88|accessdate=29 December 2011|date=25 July 2005|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-0-691-12372-1|page=88}}</ref>]]
{{main|Bitka pri Uhudu}}
Meka je sedaj bila zavzeta za to, da poraz maščuje. Da bi ohranili svojo gospodarsko blaginjo, so prebivalci Meke morali ponovno vzpostaviti svoj pri Badru izgubljeni prestiž.<ref>Watt (1961), p. 132.</ref> V naslednjih mesecih so iz Meke pošiljali oddelke v zasedo, Mohamed pa je vodil odprave proti plemenom, ki bila zavezniki Meke, in organiziral napad na karavano iz Meke.<ref>Watt (1961), p. 134</ref> [[Abu Sufyan]] nato zbral vojsko tri tisoč mož in se odpravil v napad na Medino.<ref name="IntroQuran189"/><ref name = "Lewis 1960 45">Lewis (1960), p. 45.</ref>
 
Izvidnik je kak dan kasneje opozoril Mohameda na bližajočo se vojsko in na število bojevnikov v njej. Naslednje jutro je na vojnem sestanku muslimanov prišlo do spora glede najprimernejšega odgovora na bližajoči napad. Mohamed in številne visoke osebe so bile mnenja, da bi bilo varneje, da se borijo v Medini in tako izkoristijo njene močne utrdbe. Argument mlajših muslimanov je bil, da nasprotnik uničuje njihove pridelke in da bo skrivanje za okopi škodilo njihovemu prestižu. Konec koncev je Mohamed sprejel mnenje slednjih in muslimanske sile pripravil za boj.<ref name="IntroQuran189"/> Mohamed je tako svojo vojsko odvedel iz mesta do gore Uhud (kjer je stal nasprotnikov tabor), kjer je 23. marca prišlo do bitke pri Uhudu.<ref>C.F. Robinson, ''Uhud'', [[Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref><ref>Watt (1964) p. 137</ref> Čeprav je muslimanska vojska dotlej v svojih spopadih vedno uspešna, je zaradi nediscipline strateško postavljenih lokostrelcev prišlo do poraza muslimanov, ubitih je bilo 75 muslimanov, med njimi [[Hamza Ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib | Hamza]], Mohamedov stric in en od najbolj znanih [[mučeništva v islamu |mučenikov v muslimanskem izročilu]] Nasprotnik muslimanov ni zasledoval, temveč se je vrnil nazaj v Meko in razglasil, da je v bitki zmagal. Verjetno je do tega prišlo, ker je Mohamed bil ranjen in so menili, da je umrl. Ko so to, že na na poti nazaj, zvedeli, se niso obrnili, ker so dobili napačne podatke, da mohamedancem prihajajo nove sile na pomoč.<ref name="IntroQuran189"/> Povsem uspešni pa tudi niso bili, saj jim ni uspelo, da bi muslimane dokončno uničili.<ref>Watt (1974) p. 137</ref><ref>David Cook(2007), p.24</ref> Muslimani so pokopali mrtve, in se zvečer vrnili v Medino. Pojavljala so se vprašanja glede razlogov za poraz, nanje je odgovoril z verzi {{cite quran|3|152|s=ns|b=n}}, po katerih je vzrok za poraz po eni strani kazen za neposlušnost, po drugi strani pa preizkus odločnosti vernikov.<ref>See:
* Watt (1981) p. 432;
* Watt (1964) p. 144.</ref>
 
Abu Sufyan je zdaj svoja prizadevanja usmeril na drugi napad na Medino. Pritegnil je podporo nomadskih plemen severno in vzhodno od Medine, pomagal si je s propagando o tem, kako šibek da je Mohamed, obljubljal je plen, spominjal sogovornike na ugled plemena Quraysh in jih podkupoval.<ref name = "Watt Medina 30">Watt (1956), p. 30.</ref> Mohamedova politika je sedaj bila, kolikor mu je bilo mogoče, preprečiti zavezništva proti njemu. Kadarkoli je prišlo do zaveze proti Medini, je proti plemenom poslal odprave, ki so zavezano uničile.<ref name = "Watt Medina 30" /> Kadar je Mohamed dobil novice, da se možje zbirajo s sovražnimi nameni proti Medina, je nanje odgovoril ostro.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 34</ref> En primer je umor [[Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf]]a, poglavarja judovskega rodu [[Banu Nadir]], ki je odšel v Meko in pisal pesmi, ki so v prebivalcih Meke budile žalost, jezo in željo po maščevanju za bitko pri Badru.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 18</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Rubin | first1 = Uri | year = 1990 | title = The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf | journal = Oriens | volume = 32 | issue = 1 | pages = 65–71 | jstor = 1580625 | doi = 10.2307/1580625}}</ref> Mohamed je približno leto kasne je rod Banu Nadir iz Medine<ref>Watt (1956), pp. 220–221</ref> izgnal v Sirijo in mu pri tem dovolil, da s seboj vzame nekaj svojega premoženja, ker mu jih v njihovih oporiščih ni uspelo obvladati. Ostali del njihovega premoženja je zahteval Mohamed zase v imenu Boga, ker ni bilo pridobljeno s prelivanjem krvi. Mohamed je več različnih arabskih plemen drugega za drugim presenetil z ogromno silo, zaradi česar so se njegovi sovražniki združili, da bi ga skupaj uničili.<ref name="IntroQuran190">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p.190</ref> Mohamedovi poizkusi, preprečiti nastanek konfederacije proti njemu, so bili neuspešni, uspelo pa mu je razširiti svoje sile in preprečiti številnim plemenom, da bi se pridružila njegovim sovražnikom.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 35</ref>
 
====Obleganje Medine====
{{Quote box |align=right
|quote = <div style="text-align:center;"><poem>
Alah je svetloba
nebes in zemlje.
Prilika o Njegovi svetlobi je,
kot da bi bila vdolbina in v njej svetilka:
svetilka obdala s steklom:
steklo, kot sijajna zvezda:
Žari z blagoslovljenega drevesa, z oljke,
ne od vzhoda in ne od zahoda,
njeno olje skoraj blešči,
čeprav se ga je ogenj komaj dotaknil:
Svetloba na Svetlobo!
Alah vodi vse, ki jih hoče, k svoji Luči
Alah ima prilike za može:
in Alah ve vse.
</poem></div>
|source = {{longitem|style=text-align:center;line-height:1.3em; |—&nbsp;sloviti »Verz o luči»<br/>del sure [[An-Nur]] ({{cite quran|24|35|s=ns|b=n}})}}
}}
{{main|Bitka pri Jarku}}
S pomočjo izgnanega [[Banu Nadir]]ja je vojaški vodja plemena Quraysh [[Abu Sufyan]] zbral silo deset tisoč mož. Mohamed je pripravil silo kakih 3.000 mož in se odločil za obrambo, ki dotlej v Arabiji niso poznali:na mestih,<ref name="IntroQuran190" /> kjer je Medina ležala odprta za napad konjenice, so muslimani izkopali jarek. Ideja pripisujejo Salmanu Perzijcu, perzijskemu spreobrnjencu v islam. Obleganje Medina se je začelo 31. marca 627.<ref name="IntroQuran190" /> in je trajalo dva tedna.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 36, 37</ref> Čete Abu Sufyana so utrdbe, na katere so naleteli, presenetile in po neučinkovitem večtedenskem obleganju se je koalicija odločila vrniti domov.<ref name="IntroQuran190" /><ref>See:
* Rodinson (2002), pp. 209–211;
* Watt (1964) p. 169</ref> Koran opisuje to bitko v suri Al-Ahzab, v verzih {{cite quran|33|9|e=27|s=ns|b=n}}.<ref name="Rubin"/>
Da bi se uprlo Mohamedu,, se je med bitko judovsko pleme [[Banu Qurayza]], naseljeno južno od Medine, začelo pogajati s silami iz Meke. Čeprav so imeli odprta ušesa za prepričanje, da bo z Mohamedom kmalu konec, so želeli zagotovila, če ga konfederacija ne uspe uničiti. Do dogovora po dolgotrajnih pogajanjih ni prišlo, delno zaradi Mohamedovih izvidnikov, ki so jih skušali sabotirati.<ref>Watt (1964) pp. 170–172</ref> Po umiku koalicijske stranke so muslimani obtožil Banu Qurayza izdajstva in jih 25 dni oblegali v njihovih utrdbah. Banu Qurayza se je navsezadnje predal; kot pravi [[Ibn Ishaq]], so obglavili vse moške, razen nekaterih, ki so prestopili v islam, ženske in otoke pa so dali v suženjstvo.<ref name="IntroQuran190" /><ref>Peterson(2007), p. 126</ref><ref>Ramadan (2007), p. 141</ref> Walid N. Arafat in [[Barakat Ahmad]] pa pravilnost Ibn Ishaqove pripovedi izpodbijata.<ref name="Meri1">Meri, ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia'', p. 754.</ref> Arafat meni, da so Ibn Ishaqovi Judovski viri, gledano več kot 100 let po dogodku, zlili spomin nanj s spomini iz prejšnjih pokolov v judovski zgodovini, ugotavlja, da Ibn Ishaqov sodobnik [[Malik Ibn Anas]] misli, da Ibn Ishaq ni zgodovinar, na katerega bi se lahko človek zanesel, kasni [[Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani | Ibn Hajar]] pa ga ima za prenašalca »čudnih pravljic«.<ref name="Arafat">Arafat, "New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina", '' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland'', 1976, p. 100–107.</ref> Ahmad argumentira, da so pobili le del plemena in da so nekatere od borcev samo zasužnjili.<ref name="Ahmad85">Ahmad, p. 85-94.</ref><ref>Nemoy, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews"", p. 325. Nemoy is sourcing Ahmad's ''Muhammad and the Jews''.</ref> Za Watta argumenti Arafata »niso povsem prepričljivi«, Meir J. Kister pa argumentom Arafata in Ahmada nasprotuje{{Clarify|date=March 2009}}.<ref>Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza".</ref>
 
V obleganju Medina je MeKa bila na višku svojih moči, kar se uničenja muslimanske skupnosti tiče. Njih neuspeh je povzročil znatno izgubo ugleda; njihove trgovine s Sirijo je bilo konec.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 39</ref> Po bitki na jarku so poslali dve odpravi na sever, ki sta se končali brez boja.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="IntroQuran190" /> Ko se je Mohamed vrnil z ene od njih (ali nekaj let prej, kot pravijo druga zgodnja izročila), so [[Aisha|Aisho]], njegovo ženo, obtožili prešuštva. Aisho so oprostili obtožb, potem ko je Mohamed javno razglasil novo razodetje, po katerem je Aisha nedolžna in po katerem morajo obtožbe prešuštva podpreti štirje očividci (sura 24, [[-Nur]]).<ref name="Watt-encyc-online"/>
 
====Premirje iz Hudaybiyyah====
{{main|Premirje iz Hudaybiyyah}}
{{Quote box|align=right|quote=
»V tvojem imenu, O Bog!<br>
To je mirovna pogodba, ki sta jo sklenila Muhammad Abdullah Ibn in Suhayl Ibn Amr. Dogovorila sta se, da bodo njune roke počivale deset let. V tem času bosta obe pogodbeni strani varni in ne bosta škodili druga drugi; nobene skrivne škode si ne bosta povzročali, med njima bosta vladali poštenost in čast. Kdorkoli v Arabiji želi skleniti pogodbo ali zavezo z Mohamedom, lahko to stori, in kdorkoli želi skleniti pogodbo ali zavezo s Qurayshi, lahko to stori. In če kdo od Qurayshev brez dovoljenja svojega skrbnika pride k Mohamedu, se ga izroči Qurayshem; če pa na drugi strani kdo od Mohamedovih ljudi pride k Qurayshem, ga ne izročijo Mohamedu. To leto se mora Mohamed s svojimi tovariši umakniti iz Meke, naslednje leto pa lahko pridejo v Meko in ostanejo tri dni, vendar brez orožja, razen orožja popotnikov; meči ostanejo v svojih nožnicah«| vir=—zapis sporazuma iz Hudaybiyyah<ref name=Text>{{cite book|title=Learning Islam 8|year=2009|publisher=Islamic Services Foundation|isbn=1-933301-12-0|page=D14}}</ref>
}}
Čeprav je Mohamed koranske verze, ki ukazujejo [[Hajj]], že razglasil,<ref>{{cite quran|2|196|e=210|s=ns}}</ref> jim muslimani zaradi sovražnosti plemena Quraysh niso sledili. V mesecu [[Shawwal]] leta 628,<ref name="IntroQuran190"/> je Mohamed svojim privržencem ukazal, da si preskrbijo žrtvene živali in se pripravijo na romanje (»[[umrah]]«) v Meko, češ naj mu je Bog obljubil izpolnitev tega cilja, ko si je v videnju bril glavo po zaključenem Hadž.<ref>Lings (1987), p. 249</ref> Ko Qurayshi zvedeli, da je na poti 1400 muslimanov, so poslali silo 200 konjenikov, da jih ustavi. Mohamed se jim je izognil po težji poti in po njej prišel do al Hudaybiyya, tik pred Meko.<ref name = "Hudaybiya"/> Po Wattu se je Mohamed sicer odločil za romanje na temelju svojih sanj, hkrati pa je poganom v Meki dal vedeti, da Islam ne ogroža ugleda njihovega svetišča, da je Islam vera Arabcev. <ref name = "Hudaybiya">Watt, ''al- Hudaybiya or al-Hudaybiyya'' [[Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref>
 
Začela so se pogajanja z gosti iz Meke in z obiski v njej. Ljudje so prihajali in odhajali, potem pa so se začele širiti govorice, da so enega od muslimanskih pogajalcev, [[Uthman | Uthman bin al-Affan]]a Qurayshi ubili. Mohamed se je nanje odzval s pozivom romarjem, da se zaobljubijo, da ne bodo bežali (ali pa da ostanejo z Mohamedom, ne glede na to, kaj se bo odločil storiti), če bo prišlo do vojne z Meko. Ta zaobljuba je postala znana kot »Zaobljuba o strinjanju« ({{lang-ar | بيعة الرضوان,»bay'at al-Ridhwan«}}) ali »Zaobljuba pod drevesom«. Sporočilo, da je Uthman na varnem, pa je omogočilo, da se pogajanja nadaljujejo in končajo v pogodbi med muslimani in Qurayshi za dobo desetih let.<ref name = "Hudaybiya" /><ref>Lewis (2002), p. 42.</ref> Glavne točke pogodbe so bile med drugim prenehanje sovražnosti; romanje Mohameda se je prestavilo na naslednje leto;<ref name="IntroQuran191">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p.191</ref> in soglasje, da v Medino vrne vsakega, ki bi tja prišel iz Meke brez dovoljenja svojega zaščitnika.<ref name = "Hudaybiya"/>
 
Številni muslimani s pogoji pogodbe niso bili zadovoljni. Vendar pa je koranska sura "[[Al-Fath]]" (zmaga) (Koran{{cite quran|48|1|e=29|s=ns|b=n}}) muslimanom zagotovila, da odprava, s katere se vračajo, zanje pomeni zmago.<ref>Lings (1987), p. 255</ref> Privrženci Mohameda so, kar se te pogodbe tiče, šele kasneje prišli na svoj račun Tako je zaradi nje Meka bila prisiljena prepoznati Mohameda kot njej enakega;<ref name="IntroQuran191"/> prenehanje vojaških aktivnosti je pomenilo dobre novice za prihodnost; in mnenje prebivalcev Meke, ki jih je vključitev romarskih ritualov navdušila, se je začelo spreminjati v občudovanje.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/>
 
Po podpisu premirja je Mohamed odrinil na odpravo proti judovski oazi [[Khaybar]], <ref name="IntroQuran191"/> znani kot Bitka za Khaybar. Lahko da se je za to odločil, ker je oaza dala plemenu Banu Nadir in njih spodbujanju sovražnosti proti Mohamedu zatočišče, ali pa za to, da si ponovno pridobi prestiž in zatre sumnje pri nekaterih muslimanih, ki jim je premirje z Hudaybiyya bilo sumljivo.<ref name = "Lewis 1960 45" /><ref>Vaglieri, ''Khaybar'', Encyclopedia of Islam</ref> Po muslimanskem izročilu je Mohamed tudi poslal pisma številnim vladarjem sveta in jih pozval, da prestopijo v Islam (točen datum so od vira do vira razlikuje).<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name=King_Lings>Lings (1987), p. 260</ref><ref name=Kings_Khan>Khan (1998), pp. 250–251</ref><ref name="Intro2Quran273">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p.273</ref> Tako je poslal sle (s pismi) [[Heraklij]]u v [[Bizanc]] (vzhodno Rimsko cesarstvo), [[Khosrau II|Khosrau]] v [[Sasanidski imperij|Perziji]], poglavarju [[Jemen]]a in nekaterim drugim.<ref name=King_Lings/><ref name=Kings_Khan/><ref name="Intro2Quran273"/> V letih po premirju iz Hudaybiyya je Mohamed poslal svoje sile proti Arabcem na [[Transjordanija|transjordanskem]] bizantinskem ozemlju, kjer so muslimani v bitki pri Mu'tah bili poraženi.<ref name="Intro2Quran273"/><ref>F. Buhl, ''Muta'', [[Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref>
 
===Pozna leta===
 
====Zavzetje Meke====
{{main|Zavzetje Meke|Mohamed po zavzetju Meke}}
<!------------
OPOZORILO:
Do soglasja, da se vključi sliko Mohameda, je prišlo po obsežnih, mesece trajajočih pogovorih in prizadevanjih, da se številne nasprotujoče si interese pametno in pravično uteži. Prosim ne odstranjuj in tudi ne prestavljaj te slike, ker morda čutiš, da niso po tvoji veri. Tudi prosim ne dodajaj novih slik in ne premikaj obstoječih za svoj prav. Da se izognemo brezpredmetnim spremembam in vračanju na začetno stanje, blokiranju in zaščiti strani, se o morebitnih spremembah pogovorimo raje na pogovorni strani. Hvala za tvoj prispevek k Wikipediji.
------------->
<div class="depiction">
[[File:Siyer-i Nebi 298a.jpg|thumb|upright|Prikaz Mohameda (z zastrtim obrazom), ko se bliža Meki z [[Siyer-i Nebi]], [[Otomanski imperij|otoman]]ski rokopis iz 16. stoletja. Na sliki so tudi angeli Gabriel, Mihael, Israfil in Azrail.]] </div>
 
[[Pogodba Hudaybiyyah | Premirje iz Hudaybiyyaha]] se je upoštevalo dve leti.<ref name=khan_274>Khan (1998), p. 274</ref><ref name = "Lings_291">Lings (1987), p. 291</ref> Pleme [[Banu Khuza'a]] je imelo dobre odnose z Mohamedom, njuni sovražniki, [[Banu Bakr ibn Abd manat | Banu Bakr]], pa so bili zavezniki Meke.<ref name=khan_274/><ref name = "Lings_291" /> Klan Bakr je neke noöi napadek Khuza'a in jih nekaj med njimi ubil.<ref name=khan_274/><ref name=Lings_291/> Meka je plemenu Banu Bakr pomagala z orožjem in po nekaterih virih naj bi v bojih sodelovalo nekaj njenih prebivalcev.<ref name="Intro2Quran273"/><ref name=khan_274/> Po tem dogodku je Mohamed v Meko poslal pismo s tremi pogoji in zahteval, da sprejmejo enega od njih. Pogoji so bili: Meka naj plača krvni davek za pobite člane plamena Khuza'ah plemena, ali pa naj se odpove zavezništvu s plemenom Banu Bakr, ali pa naj razglasi, da premirje z Hudaybiyyah ne velja več.<ref name=khan_274_275>Khan (1998), pp. 274–5.</ref>
 
Meka je odgovorila, da lahko sprejmejo samo zadnji pogoj.<ref name=khan_274_275/> Kmalu pa so spoznali svojo napako in poslali Abu Sufyan, da dogovor z Hudaybiyyah podaljša, vendar pa je tokrat Mohamed njegovo zahtevo zavrnil.<ref name="Intro2Quran273"/>
 
Mohamed se je začel pšripravljati na odpravo.<ref>Lings (1987), p. 292</ref> Leta 630 se Mohamed odpravil na Meko z ogromno silo, za katero pravijo, da je štela več kot deset tisoč ljudi. Mohamed je z minimalnimi žrtvami prevzel nadzor nad Meko.<ref>Watt (1956), p. 66.</ref><ref name="Intro2Quran274">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p.274</ref> Razglasil je amnestijo za pretekla dejanja, razen za deset moških in žensk, ki so bili"krivi umora in drugih kaznivih dejanj ali pa so sprožili vojno in ogrožali mir."<ref name=Subhani>''The Message'' by Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani, [http://www.al-islam.org/message/49.htm#n582 chapter 48] referencing Sirah by [[Ibn Hisham]], vol. II, page 409.</ref> Nekatere med njimi so kasneje pomilostili.<ref name="Intro2Quran274"/><ref>Rodinson (2002), p. 261.</ref> Večina prebivalstva Meke je prestopila v Islam inh Mohamed je nato uničil vsae kipce Arabskih bogov v Kaabi in okoli nje.<ref name="Intro2Quran274"/><ref>Harold Wayne Ballard, Donald N. Penny, W. Glenn Jonas (2002), p.163</ref><ref>F. E. Peters (2003), p.240</ref> Kot poročata [[Ibn Ishaq]] in [[al-Azraqi]], je Mohameda osebno prizanesel slikam ali freskam [[Marija (Jezusova mati) | Marije]] in Jezusa, po drugih izročilih pa naj bi uničili vse slike. <ref>{{cite book | title=The Life of Muhammad. Prevod "Sirat Rasul Alah", avtor Ishaq. | publisher=Oxford University Press |last=Guillaume | first=Alfred | authorlink=Alfred Guillaume | year=1955 | page=552 | isbn=978-0-19-636033-1 | quote=Quraysh je dal slike v Ka ' ba, med drugim dve s sliko Jezusa, Marijinega sina, in Marije (mir jima bodi!). ... Apostol je ukazal, da se slike, razen tistih z Jezusom in Marijo, zbrišejo. | url=http://www.archive.org/details/IbnIshaq-SiratRasulAllah-translatorA.Guillaume |accessdate=8 December 2011}}</ref> Koran govori o osvojitvi Meke.<ref name="Rubin"/><ref>{{cite quran|110|1|3|s=ns}}</ref>
 
====Zavzetje Arabije====
{{main|Bitka pri Hunaynu|Bitka pri Tabouku}}
Kmalu po osvojitvi Meke so Mohameda začele skrbeti vojaške grožnje s strani združenja plemen Hawazin, ki je zbralo vojsko, dvakrat večjo od Mohamedove. Pleme [[Hawazin|Banu Hawazin]] je bil star sovražnik Meke. Pridružili so se jim meščani mesta Ta'if, ki so zaradi upadlega prestiža Meke prešli med njene nasprotnike.<ref>Watt (1974), p.207</ref> Mohamed je premagal plemeni Hawazin in Thaqif v bitki pri Hunaynu.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="Intro2Quran275">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p.275</ref>
 
Istega leta je Mohamed odrinil na odpravo proti Tabuku na severu Arabije, zaradi preteklega poraza pri Mu'tah kot tudi zaradi poročil, da je postalo sovražno proti muslimanom. Z največjo težavo je zbral trideset tisoč mož, od teh pa se je že drugi dan po odhodu iz Meke vrnilo, ne da bi jih motili grozeči verzi, ki jih je Mohamed stresal nanje. <ref name="Intro2Quran276">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p.276</ref> Četudi Mohamed ni naletel na sovražne sile v Tabuku, se mu je nekaj okoliških poglavarjev v pokrajini podjarmilo.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref>M.A. al-Bakhit, ''Tabuk'', [[Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref>
 
Ukazal je tudi uničiti poganske malike, kar jih je še bilo najti v vzhodni Arabiji. Zadnje mesto, ki se je v vzhodni Arabiji še upiralo muslimanom, je bil [[Taif]]. Mohamed je odbil sprejeti predajo mesta, dokler ne prestopi v islam in njegovim nožem ne dovoli uničiti kip njihove boginje [[Allat]].<ref>Ibn Ishaq (translated by Guillaume, A. 1955) The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pg. pg. 916–918</ref><ref>Haykal, M.H. (1933) The Life of Muhammad, translated by Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. The Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, Cairo, Egypt & the University of Chicago.</ref><ref>Husayn, M.J. – Biography of Imam `Ali Ibn Abi-Talib, Translation of Sirat Amir Al-Mu'minin, Translated By: Sayyid Tahir Bilgrami, Ansariyan Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran</ref>
 
Leto dni po bitki pri Tabuku so Banu Thaqif poslali odposlance v Medino, da se predajo Mohamedu in sprejmejo islam. Številni beduini so se pridružili Mohamedu, da bi bili varni pred njegovimi napadi in da bi dobili svoj kos vojnega plena.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="Intro2Quran276"/> Vendar pa je beduinom sistem islama bil tuj in želeli so ohraniti svojo neodvisnost, svojo uveljavljeno kodo vrlin in izročila svojih prednikov. Mohamed je zato od njih zahteval vojaški in politični dogovor, po katerem »priznajo nadvlado Medine, se vzdržijo napadov na muslimane in njihove zaveznike in plačujejo [[Zakat]], muslimanski verski davek.«<ref name="Intro2Quran276"/><ref>Lewis (1993), pp.43–44</ref>
 
====Poslovilno romanje====
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OPOZORILO:
Do soglasja, da se vključi sliko Mohameda, je prišlo po obsežnih, mesece trajajočih pogovorih in prizadevanjih, da se številne nasprotujoče si interese pametno in pravično uteži. Prosim ne odstranjuj in tudi ne prestavljaj te slike, ker morda čutiš, da niso po tvoji veri. Tudi prosim ne dodajaj novih slik in ne premikaj obstoječih za svoj prav. Da se izognemo brezpredmetnim spremembam in vračanju na začetno stanje, blokiranju in zaščiti strani, se o morebitnih spremembah pogovorimo raje na pogovorni strani. Hvala za tvoj prispevek k Wikipediji.
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<div class="depiction">
[[File:Maome.jpg|thumb|Anonimna ilustracija [[Abu Rayhan Biruni|al-Bīrūnī]]jevi ''[[Preostali znaki preteklih stoletij]]'', z Mohamedom, ki prepoveduje Nasi' med poslovilnim romanjem<!-- ''cf. Watt (1956), p.300'' -->, Otomanska kopija iz 17. stoleja ilkhanatskega rokopisa iz 14.st. (Edinburški kodeks).]]
</div>
{{main|Poslovilno romanje}}
Leta 632, deset let po selitvi v Medino, se je Mohamed prvič odpravil na pravo [[Hajj| Islamsko romanje]], med njim pa svoje privržence poučeval o obredih velikega letnega romanja, poznanega kot »Hadž«.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> Ob koncu svojega romanja je Mohamed na gori Arafat vzhodno od Meke imel slaven govor, znan kot poslovilni govor. V njem je Mohamed svojim privržencem svetoval, da naj se ne držijo nekaterih pred-islamskih običajev. Razglasil je, da Arabci niso več vredni kot ne-Arabci, pa tudi ne-Arabci niso več kot Arabci. Tudi niso belci več vredni kot črnci in črnci ne več kot belci, razen v njih pobožnosti in dobrih delih<ref>{{cite book |last= Sultan |first= Sohaib |title=The Koran For Dummies|publisher= [[John Wiley & Sons]] |date=March 2011 |isbn= 0-7645-5581-2}}</ref> Ukinil je vsa stara krvna maščevanja in spore, povezane z nekdanjim plemenskim sistemom in zahteval, da se vse stare zaobljube razvežejo kot znak za rojstvo nove islamske skupnosti. Ko je prišel na ranljivost žensk v svoji družbi, je Mohamed zaprosil svoje moške privržence, »bodite dobri do žena, ki so nemočne jetnice (''Awan'') v vaši hiši. Vzeli ste si jih iz rok Boga in to zvezo uzakonili z Božjo besedo, zatorej ljudje, spametujte se in poslušajte moje besede ... « Povedal jim je, da imajo pravico krotiti in kaznovati svoje žene, vendar naj jim pri tem vlada dobrota. Lotil se je tudi vprašanja dedovanja in prepovedal lažne zahteve na osnovi očetovstva ali poslovnega odnosa do pokojnika; svojim privržencem je prepovedal, dedičem zapuščati premoženje z oporoko. Poudaril je tudi svetost štirih lunarnih mesecev v posameznem letu.<ref>[[Devin J. Stewart]], ''Farewell Pilgrimage'', Encyclopedia of the Qur'an</ref><ref>Al-Hibri (2003), p.17</ref><ref name="Intro2Quran278">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p.278</ref> Po sunitskem tafsiru je med tem dogodkom bil izrečen naslednji verz korana: »Danes sem dopolnil svojo vero, izpolnil svoje milosti za vas in izbral islam kot vero za vas« (Quran {{cite quran|5|3|s=ns|b=n}}).<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name="Intro2Quran279">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p.279</ref> Po šiitskem tafsiru gre pri tem za imenovanje Alija za Mohamedovega namestnika nekaj dni kasneje, ko so se muslimani vrnili iz Meke v Medino.<ref>See:
* [http://www.almizan.org/Tafseer/Volume3/Baqarah50.asp Tabatabae, Tafsir Al-Mizan, volume 9, pages 227–247]{{dead link|date=September 2012}}
* {{Cite web|url=http://www.tafseercomparison.org/study2.asp?TitleText=Study%202:%20Verse%205:3|title=Comparing the Tafsir of various exegetes|publisher=Tafseer Comparison|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120514111339/http://www.tafseercomparison.org/study2.asp?TitleText=Study%202:%20Verse%205:3|archivedate=14 May 2012|accessdate=2 February 2013}}</ref>
 
====Smrt in grob====
[[File:MASJID NABAVI dome Minaret 12122008209.jpg|thumb|Mohamedov mavzolejMuhammad|left]]
Nekaj ​​mesecev po poslovilnem romanju je Mohamed zbolel in nekaj dni imel povišano telesno temperaturo, glavobole in šibko počutje.<ref name="Intro2Quran279"/> Umrl je v ponedeljek, 8. junija 632 v Medini, staj 62 ali 63 v hiši svoje žene Ajše.<ref name="USN&WR">[http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/religion/2008/04/07/the-last-prophet.html?PageNr=3 ''The Last Prophet''], page 3. By Lewis Lord of [[U.S. News & World Report]]. 7 April 2008.</ref> Z glavo v njenem naročju je Ajšo prosil, da razdeli njegovo posvetno imetje (sedem kovancev), nato pa zamrmral svoje zadnje besede: {{Citat| Najbolj vzvišena skupnost v nebesih.<ref name="USN&WR"/>|Muhammad}}
 
Pokopali so ga, kjer je umrl, v Ajšini hiši.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref>Leila Ahmed (1986), 665–91 (686)</ref><ref name="Peters90">F. E. Peters(2003), [http://books.google.com/books?id=HYJ2c9E9IM8C&pg=PA90 p. 90]</ref><ref name="Intro2Quran281">An Introduction to the Quran II (1895), p. 281</ref> V času vladavine Omajadskega kalifa [[al-Walid I]], [[Al Masjid-Nabawi]]ja so prerokovo mošejo razširili tako, da vsebuje Mohamedovo grobnico.<ref>{{Cite book| publisher = Penerbit UTM| isbn = 978-983-52-0373-2| last = Ariffin| first = Syed Ahmad Iskandar Syed| title = Architectural Conservation in Islam : Case Study of the Prophet's Mosque| year = 2005| page=88}}</ref> Zeleno kupolo nad grobom je zgradil mameluški sultan [[Al Mansur Qalawun]] v 13. stoletju, zeleno barvno so ji dodali v 16. stoletju pod vlado otomanskega sultana [[Sulejman Veličastni|Sulejmana veličastnega]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=10061 |title=Prophet's Mosque |publisher=Archnet.org |date=2 May 2005 |accessdate=26 January 2012}}</ref> Poleg Mohamedovega ležijo grobovi njegovih spremljevalcev ([[Sahabah]]), prvih dveh muslimanskih califov [[Abu Bakr]]a in [[Umar]]ja, in pa prazen grob, ki po veri muslimanov čaka na Jezusa.<ref name="Peters90"/><ref>"Isa", ''Encyclopedia of Islam''</ref><ref name="Al-HaqqaniKabbani2002">{{cite book|author1=Shaykh Adil Al-Haqqani|author2=Shaykh Hisham Kabbani|title=The Path to Spiritual Excellence|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=mzpV0QnOVxsC&pg=PA65|year=2002|publisher=ISCA|isbn=978-1-930409-18-7|pages=65–66}}</ref>
Ko je [[Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Mohamed bin Saud | bin Saud]] leta 1805 osvojil Medino, je z Mohamedove grobnice odstranil okraske iz zlata in draguljev.<ref name="Weston2008"/> Pristaši bin Sauda, privrženci [[vahabizem|vahabizma]], so uničili skoraj vse grobne kupole v Medino, da bi preprečili njih češčenje,<ref name="Weston2008">{{cite book|author=Mark Weston|title=Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EEEFsVYLko4C&pg=PA102|year=2008|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|isbn=978-0-470-18257-4|pages=102–103}}</ref> in za Mohamedovo pravijo, da jo je skorajda prizadela ista usoda.<ref name="Behrens-AbouseifVernoit2006">{{cite book|author1=Doris Behrens-Abouseif|author2=Stephen Vernoit|title=Islamic art in the 19th century: tradition, innovation, and eclecticism|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=A4q58Af5zAoC&pg=PA22|year=2006|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-04-14442-2|page=22}}</ref> Podobni dogodki so se pripetili leta 1925, ko so [[Ikhwan | Savdske milice]] mesto ponovno zavzele —in jo tokrat uspele obdržati.<ref name="Weston2008b">{{cite book|author=Mark Weston|title=Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EEEFsVYLko4C&pg=PA136|year=2008|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|isbn=978-0-470-18257-4|page=136}}</ref><ref name="Cornell2007">{{cite book|author=Vincent J. Cornell|title=Voices of Islam: Voices of the spirit|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=8dNKFLJVvNkC&pg=PA84|year=2007|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-275-98734-3|page=84}}</ref><ref name="Ernst2004">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst|title=Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DOWn22EkJsQC&pg=PA1173|year=2004|publisher=Univ of North Carolina Press|isbn=978-0-8078-5577-5|pages=173–174}}</ref> Kakor si vahabisti razlagajo islam, se mrtve pokopava v neoznačene grobove.<ref name="Behrens-AbouseifVernoit2006"/> Čeprav to Savdijcem ni bilo po volji, so številni romarji še dalje prihajali na ritualni obisk groba [[Ziyarat]].<ref name="Bennett1998">{{cite book|author=Clinton Bennett|title=In search of Muhammad|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=-VTIkkcUFHQC&pg=PA182|year=1998|publisher=Continuum International Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-304-70401-9|pages=182–183}}</ref><ref name="Clark2011">{{cite book|author=Malcolm Clark|title=Islam For Dummies|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=zPXu561ZpvgC&pg=PT165|year=2011|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-118-05396-6|page=165}}</ref> Čeprav so Savdijci to prepovedali, so oktobra 2012 objavili fotografije iz notranjosti grobnice Mohameda in njegove hčerke (Fatemeh), ki kažejo zelo preprosto, z zeleno barvo okrašeno gradnjo.<ref>[http://en.shafaqna.com/component/k2/item/11275-8-astonishing-photos-of-the-prophet-muhammad-s-tomb-inside.html 8 Astonishing Photos of the Prophet Muhammad's Tomb (inside)] Shafaqna.com</ref>
 
{{wide image|Madina Haram at evening .jpg|800px|[[Al-Masjid an-Nabawi]] (prerokova mošeja) v [[Medina|Medini]], Saudska Arabija, z zeleno kupolo nad Mohamedovim grobom v sredini.|left}}
 
===Po Mohamedu===
[[File:Muslim Conquest.PNG|thumb|Osvojitve Mohameda in Rashidun.]]
{{see also|Rashidun|Muslimanske osvojitve|Nasledstvo Mohameda}}
Muhammad je zadnja leta svojega življenja združil arabska plemena Arabija v enotno muslimansko versko skupnost. S smrtjo Mohameda so izbruhnila nesoglasja glede tega, kdo ga bo nadomestil vodja muslimanske skupnosti.<ref name="Lapidus 2002 pp 0"/> [[Umar ibn al-Khattab]], vpliven sopotnik Mohameda, je imenoval [[Abu Bakr]]a, Mohamedovega prijatelja in sodelavca. Drugi so predlog podprli Abu Bakr je postal prvi [[kalif]].<ref name="Intro2Quran281"/> S to izbiro se nekateri od tovarišev Mohameda niso strinjali, ker je po njihovem Mohamed pri [[Ghadir Khumm]]u za svojega naslednika postavil Ali Ibn Abi Taliba, svojega bratranca in zeta. Abu Bakrova prva naloga je bila odprava proti [[Bizanc]]u (ali [[vzhodno rimsko cesarstvo|vzhodnemu rimskemu cesarstvu]]) zaradi nedavnega poraza, vendar je moral najprej v »vojnah z odpadniki«, kot to epizodo imenujejo kasnejši muslimanski zgodovinarji, zatreti upor arabskih plemen.<ref>Glej:
* Holt (1977a), p.57
* Hourani (2003), p.22
* Lapidus (2002), p.32
* Esposito(1998), p.36
* Madelung (1996), p.43
</ref>
 
Pred-islamski Bližnji vzhod je bil pod [[Bizantinsko cesarstvo | bizantinsko]] in [[Sasanidski imperij |sasanidsko]] nadvlado. Vojne med Rimljani in Perzijci so opustošile območje, zaradi česar sta nepriljubljen med lokalnimi plemeni imperija bila nepriljubljena. Tudi je v deželah, ki jih bodo muslimani kmalu zasedli, živelo veliko kristjanov ([[Nestorianci | Nestoriancev]], [[Monofizit]]ov, [[sirska pravoslavna cerkev | Jakobitov]] in [[Kopt]]ov), ki s [[Pravoslavno krščanstvo | pravoslavjem]] niso bili srečni, ker so ga imeli za krivoverstvo. V samo desetih letih so muslimani osvojili [[Mezopotamija|Mezopotamijo]], [[Iran | Perzijo]], bizantinsko Sirijo in Egipt,<ref>Esposito (1998), p.35–36</ref> in ustanovili Rashidun kalifat.
 
== Zgodnje reforme pod islamom ==
{{main|Zgodnje reforme pod islamom}}
 
đAccording to [[William Montgomery Watt]], religion, for Muhammad, was not a private and individual matter but rather “the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding &#91;not only&#93;… to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject."<ref>Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p. 30.</ref> [[Bernard Lewis]] says that there are two important political traditions in Islam – one that views Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and another that views him as a rebel in Mecca. He sees Islam itself as a type of revolution that greatly changed the societies into which the new religion was brought.<ref name="LewisNYRB">Lewis [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/4557 (1998)]</ref>
 
Historians generally agree that Islamic social reforms in areas such as [[social security]], family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on the status quo of Arab society.<ref name="LewisNYRB"/><ref>
* Watt (1974), p. 234
* Robinson (2004) p. 21
* Esposito (1998), p. 98
* R. Walzer, ''Ak̲h̲lāḳ'', [[Encyclopaedia of Islam Online]]</ref> For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced [[Aristocracy (class)|aristocratic]] privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents".<ref name="LewisNYRB"/> Muhammad's message transformed the society and [[Islamic ethics|moral order]] of life in the Arabian Peninsula through reorientation of society as regards to identity, [[world view]], and the hierarchy of values.<ref>''Islamic ethics'', [[Encyclopedia of Ethics]]</ref>
Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in [[Jahiliyyah|pre-Islamic]] Mecca.<ref>Watt, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'', p. 34</ref> The Quran requires payment of an alms tax ([[zakat]]) for the benefit of the poor, and as Muhammad's position grew in power he demanded that those tribes who wanted to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.<ref>Esposito (1998), p. 30</ref><ref>Watt, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'', p. 52</ref>
 
== Videz ==
[[File:Hilye-i serif 5.jpg|thumb|»[[hilya]]« z opisom Molhameda, [[Hâfiz Osman]] (1642–1698)]]
 
Ali je naslednji opis Muhammad fizični izgled: cbv<ref name="AsaniAbdel-Malek1995">{{cite book |author1=Ali Sultaan Asani |author2=Kamal Abdel-Malek |author3=Annemarie Schimmel |title=Celebrating Muḥammad: images of the prophet in popular Muslim poetry |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=_10OAAAAYAAJ |accessdate=5 November 2011 |date=October 1995 |publisher=University of South Carolina Press |isbn=978-1-57003-050-5}}</ref>
 
{{quotation|Muhammad was middle-sized, did not have lank or crisp hair, was not fat, had a white circular face, wide black eyes, and long eye-lashes. When he walked, he walked as though he went down a [[wikt:declivity|declivity]]. He had the "seal of prophecy" between his shoulder blades ... He was bulky. His face shone like the moon. He was taller than middling stature but shorter than conspicuous tallness. He had thick, curly hair. The plaits of his hair were parted. His hair reached beyond the lobe of his ear. His complexion was ''azhar'' [bright, luminous]. Muhammad had a wide forehead, and fine, long, arched eyebrows which did not meet. Between his eyebrows there was a vein which distended when he was angry. The upper part of his nose was hooked; he was thick bearded, had smooth cheeks, a strong mouth, and his teeth were set apart. He had thin hair on his chest. His neck was like the neck of an ivory statue, with the purity of silver. Muhammad was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered.}}
 
The "seal of prophecy" between the Prophet's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg.<ref name="Schimmel1985">{{cite book|author=Annemarie Schimmel|title=And Muhammad is his messenger: the veneration of the Prophet in Islamic piety|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=jlYOAAAAYAAJ|accessdate=5 November 2011|year=1985|publisher=University of North Carolina Press|isbn=978-0-8078-1639-4|page=34}}</ref> Another description of Muhammad was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina:<ref name="Safi2009">{{cite book|author=Omid Safi|title=Memories of Muhammad: why the Prophet matters|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Gs2oDbagvfIC&pg=PA273|accessdate=5 November 2011|date=17 November 2009|publisher=HarperCollins|isbn=978-0-06-123134-6|pages=273–274}}</ref>
 
{{quotation|I saw a man, pure and clean, with a handsome face and a fine figure. He was not marred by a skinny body, nor was he overly small in the head and neck. He was graceful and elegant, with intensely black eyes and thick eyelashes. There was a huskiness in his voice, and his neck was long. His beard was thick, and his eyebrows were finely arched and joined together.<p>When silent, he was grave and dignified, and when he spoke, glory rose up and overcame him. He was from afar the most beautiful of men and the most glorious, and close up he was the sweetest and the loveliest. He was sweet of speech and articulate, but not petty or trifling. His speech was a string of cascading pearls, measured so that none despaired of its length, and no eye challenged him because of brevity.}}
 
Descriptions like these were often reproduced in calligraphic panels (''[[hilya]]'' or, in Turkish, ''hilye''), which in the 17th century developed into an art form of their own in the [[Ottoman Empire]].<ref name="Safi2009" />
 
== Household ==
{{main|Muhammad's wives|Ahl al-Bayt}}
[[File:Mrs Aisha room.jpg|thumb|left|The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, [[Aisha]]. ([[Al-Masjid an-Nabawi]], [[Medina]])]]
 
Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: [[Muhammad in Mecca|pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca]] (from 570 to 622), and [[Muhammad in Medina|post-hijra in Medina]] (from 622 until 632). Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives (although here are differing accounts on the status of two of them, [[Rayhana bint Zayd]] and [[Maria al-Qibtiyya]], as wife or concubine.<ref>See for example Marco Schöller, '' Banu Qurayza'', [[Encyclopedia of the Quran]] mentioning the differing accounts of the status of [[Rayhana]]</ref><ref name="Barbara Freyer">Barbara Freyer Stowasser, ''Wives of the Prophet'', [[Encyclopedia of the Quran]]</ref>) All but two of his marriages were contracted after the [[Hijra (Islam)|migration to Medina]].
 
At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy [[Khadijah bint Khuwaylid]] who was 40 years old at that time.<ref>{{cite book | last = Subhani | first = Jafar | title = The Message | url = http://www.al-islam.org/message | publisher = Ansariyan Publications, Qom | chapter = Chapter 9}}</ref> The marriage lasted for 25&nbsp;years and was a happy one.<ref name="Esp2">Esposito (1998), p. 18</ref> Muhammad relied upon Khadija in many ways and did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage.<ref name = "Bullough 1998 119">Bullough (1998), p. 119</ref><ref name="Reeves46">Reeves (2003), p. 46</ref> After the death of Khadija, it was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim that he should marry [[Sawda bint Zama]], a Muslim widow, or [[Aisha]], daughter of [[Um Ruman]] and [[Abu Bakr]] of [[Mecca]]. Muhammad is said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both.<ref name="Watt-encyc-online">Watt, ''Aisha'', [[Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref>
 
Traditional sources dictate that Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad,<ref name="Watt-encyc-online"/><ref name="Spellberg">[[Denise Spellberg|D. A. Spellberg]], ''Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: the Legacy of A'isha bint Abi Bakr'', [[Columbia University Press]], 1994, p. 40</ref><ref name="Armstrong">Karen Armstrong, ''Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet'', Harper San Francisco, 1992, p. 145.</ref> with the marriage not being [[consummate]]d until after she had reached puberty at the age of nine or ten years old.<ref name="Watt-encyc-online"/><ref name="Spellberg"/><ref name="Karen_Armstrong">Karen Armstrong, ''Muhammad: Prophet For Our Time'', HarperPress, 2006, p. 105.</ref><ref name="Haykal">Muhammad Husayn Haykal, ''The Life of Muhammad'', North American Trust Publications (1976), p. 139</ref><ref>Barlas (2002), p.125-126</ref><ref>{{Hadith-usc|bukhari|5|58|234}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|5|58|236}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|7|62|64}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|7|62|65}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|7|62|88}}, {{Hadith-usc|usc=yes|muslim|8|3309}}, {{Hadith-usc|muslim|8|3310}}, {{Hadith-usc|muslim|8|3311}}, {{Hadith-usc|abudawud|41|4915}}, {{Hadith-usc|abudawud|usc=yes|41|4917}}</ref><ref>Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7</ref> While the majority of traditional sources indicate Aisha was 9 (and therefore a virgin) at the time of marriage, a small number of more recent [[Shia]] writers have variously estimated her age at 12 to 24.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://alqatrah.net/en/edara/index.php?id=91 | title = A'isha was not a child when the Prophet married her | last = Allama Sheikh Yasser Al-Habib}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.al-islam.org/polygamy-marriages-prophet | title = The Concept of Polygamy and the Prophet's Marriages (Chapter: The Other Wives)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.valiasr-aj.com/fa/page.php?bank=question&id=699 | title = Ayesha married the Prophet when she was young? (In Persian and Arabic) | last = Ayatollah Qazvini }}</ref>
 
After migration to Medina, Muhammad (who was now in his fifties) married several women. These marriages were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. The women were either widows of Muslims who had been killed in battle and had been left without a protector, or belonging to important families or clans whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances with.<ref>Momen (1985), p.9</ref>
 
Muhammad did his own household chores and helped with housework, such as preparing food, sewing clothes and repairing shoes. He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him.<ref>[[Tariq Ramadan]] (2007), p. 168–9</ref><ref>Asma Barlas (2002), p. 125</ref><ref>Armstrong (1992), p. 157</ref>
 
Khadijah is said to have had four daughters with Muhammad ([[Ruqayyah bint Muhammad]], [[Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad]], [[Zainab bint Muhammad]], [[Fatimah|Fatimah Zahra]]) and two sons ([[Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad]] and [[Qasim ibn Muhammad]], who both died in childhood). All but one of his daughters, Fatimah, died before him.<ref name="Nich"/> Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter.<ref>Ordoni (1990) pp. 32, 42–44.</ref> [[Maria al-Qibtiyya]] bore him a son named [[Ibrahim ibn Muhammad]], but the child died when he was two years old.<ref name="Nich">Nicholas Awde (2000), p.10</ref>
 
Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him.<ref name="Barbara Freyer"/> Aisha, who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni tradition, survived him by many decades and was instrumental in helping bring together the scattered sayings of Muhammad that would form the Hadith literature for the Sunni branch of Islam.<ref name="Watt-encyc-online"/>
 
Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah are known as ''[[sharif]]s'', ''syeds'' or ''[[sayyid]]s''. These are honorific titles in [[Arabic language|Arabic]], ''sharif'' meaning 'noble' and ''sayed'' or ''sayyid'' meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on their distinction.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |title=Ali |encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica Online}}</ref>
 
Zayd ibn Harith was a slave whom Muhammad bought, freed, and then adopted as his son. He also had a [[wet nurse|wetnurse]].<ref name=Zad116>Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya recorded the list of some names of Muhammad's female-slaves in [[Zad al-Ma'ad]], Part I, p. 116</ref> [[Muhammad's views on slavery|Muhammad owned other slaves]] as well, whom he bought usually to free.<ref>'Human Rights in Islam'. Published by The Islamic Foundation (1976) – Leicester, U.K</ref>
 
== Legacy ==
{{Islam |history}}
 
===Muslim views===
{{main|Muhammad in Islam}}
[[File:Sahadah-Topkapi-Palace.jpg|thumb|left|The [[Muslim]] [[Profession (religious)|profession]] of faith, the [[Shahadah]], illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except [[Allah|the God]] and Muhammad is the [[Prophets in Islam|Messenger of God]]." ([[Topkapı Palace]])]]
 
Following the attestation to the [[Tawhid|oneness of God]], the belief in Muhammad's prophethood is the main aspect of the [[Aqidah|Islamic faith]]. Every Muslim proclaims in the ''[[Shahadah]]'' that "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is a Messenger of God". The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of [[Islam]]. Ideally, it is the first word a newborn will hear, and children are taught as soon as they are able to understand it and it will be recited when they die. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in the call to prayer (''[[adhan]]'') and the [[salat|prayer]] itself. Non-Muslims wishing to [[Conversion to Islam|convert to Islam]] are required to recite the creed.<ref>Farah (1994), p.135</ref>
 
In Islamic belief, Muhammad is regarded as the last of a series of prophets sent by God<ref name="espos12"/><ref>{{cite book |last=Clark |first=Malcolm |title=Islam for Dummies |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=zPXu561ZpvgC&pg=PT100#v=onepage&q&f=true |year=2003 |publisher=Wiley Publishing Inc. |location=[[Indiana]] |isbn= |page=100}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Nigosian |first=S. A. |title= Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=my7hnALd_NkC&pg=PA17#v=onepage&q&f=false |year=2004 |publisher=[[Indiana University Press]] |location=[[Indiana]] |isbn= 0-253-21627-3 |page=17}}</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor=Juan E. Campo |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Islam |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A1438126964&pg=PA494#v=onepage&q&f=false |publisher=[[Facts on File]] |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|page=494}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/396226/Muhammad |title=Muhammad |author= |year=2013 |work= Encyclopædia Britannica Online |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc |accessdate=27 January 2013}}</ref> for the benefit of mankind. {{Cite quran|10|37|s=ns}} states that "...it (the Quran) is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book – wherein there is no doubt – from [[God in Islam|The Lord of the Worlds]].". Similarly {{Cite quran|46|12|s=ns}} states "...And before this was the book of Moses, as a guide and a mercy. And this Book confirms (it)...", while {{Cite quran|2|136|s=ns|b=n}} commands the believers of Islam to "Say: we believe in God and that which is revealed unto us, and that which was revealed unto [[Abraham]] and [[Ishmael]] and [[Isaac]] and [[Jacob]] and the tribes, and that which [[Moses]] and Jesus received, and which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered."
 
Historian Denis Gril believes that the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing [[Islamic view of miracles|miracles]], and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is finally [[Quran and miracles|identified with the Quran itself]].<ref name="EoQ-Miracle">Denis Gril, ''Miracles'', [[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]]</ref> However, Muslim tradition credits [[Miracles of Muhammad|Muhammad with several miracles or supernatural events]].<ref name="EoI-Miracle">A.J. Wensinck, ''Muʿd̲j̲iza'', [[Encyclopaedia of Islam|Encyclopedia of Islam]]</ref> For example, many Muslim commentators and some Western scholars have interpreted the Surah {{cite quran|54|1|e=2|s=ns|b=n}} as referring to Muhammad [[Splitting of the moon|splitting the Moon]] in view of the Quraysh when they began persecuting his followers.<ref name="EoQ-Miracle"/><ref>Daniel Martin Varisco, ''Moon'', [[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]]</ref>
 
The [[Sunnah]] represents the actions and sayings of Muhammad (preserved in reports known as [[Hadith]]), and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God. The Sunnah is considered a model of emulation for pious Muslims and has to a great degree influenced the Muslim culture. The greeting that Muhammad taught Muslims to offer each other, "may peace be upon you" (Arabic: ''[[As-Salamu Alaykum|as-salamu `alaykum]]'') is used by Muslims throughout the world. Many details of major Islamic rituals such as daily prayers, the fasting and the annual pilgrimage are only found in the Sunnah and not the Quran.<ref>''Muhammad'', Encyclopædia Britannica, p.9</ref>
 
The Sunnah also played a major role in the development of the Islamic sciences. It contributed much to the development of Islamic law, particularly from the end of the first Islamic century.<ref>J. Schacht, ''Fiḳh'', Encyclopedia of Islam</ref> Muslim mystics, known as [[sufi]]s, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect saint. Sufi orders trace their chain of spiritual descent back to Muhammad.<ref>''Muhammad'', Encyclopædia Britannica, p.11–12</ref>
 
[[File:Mohamed peace be upon him.svg|thumb|right|125px|Calligraphic rendering of "peace be upon him", customarily added after Muhammad's name in writing. The phrase is encoded as a [[Typographic ligature|ligature]] at [[Unicode]] codepoint [[Arabic Unicode|U+FDFA]].<ref name="unicode">{{cite web |url=http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/Unicode-3.1/U31-FB50.pdf |title=Arabic Presentation Forms-A |date=1 October 2009 |work=The Unicode Standard, Version 5.2 |publisher=Unicode, Inc. |location=Mountain View, Ca. |format=PDF |accessdate=9 May 2010}}</ref> {{script|Arab|ﷺ}}.]]
 
Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad. Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles (particularly "[[Splitting of the moon]]") have permeated popular Muslim thought and [[Naat|poetry]]. Among Arabic odes to Muhammad, the [[Qaṣīda al-Burda]] ("Poem of the Mantle") by the Egyptian [[Sufi]] [[al-Busiri]] (1211–1294) is particularly well known, and widely held to possess a healing, spiritual power.<ref name="Stetkevych2010">{{cite book|author=Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych|title=The mantle odes: Arabic praise poems to the Prophet Muḥammad|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=F-nY3_DXo-gC&pg=PR12|accessdate=27 January 2012|date=24 May 2010|publisher=Indiana University Press|isbn=978-0-253-22206-0|page=xii}}</ref> The Quran refers to Muhammad as "a mercy (''rahmat'') to the worlds" (Quran {{cite quran|21|107|s=ns|b=n}}).<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> The association of rain with mercy in Oriental countries has led to imagining Muhammad as a rain cloud dispensing blessings and stretching over lands, reviving the dead hearts, just as rain revives the seemingly dead earth (see, for example, the Sindhi poem of Shah ʿAbd al-Latif).<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> [[Mawlid|Muhammad's birthday]] is celebrated as a major feast throughout the [[Muslim world|Islamic world]], excluding [[Wahhabism|Wahhabi]]-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged.<ref name="Nasr-Muhammad">[[Seyyed Hossein Nasr]], Encyclopædia Britannica, ''Muhammad'', p.13</ref> When Muslims say or write the name of Muhammad, they usually follow it with ''[[Peace be upon him (Islam)|Peace be upon him]]'' (Arabic: ''sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam'').<ref name="Ann Goldman 2006 p.212"/> In casual writing, this is sometimes abbreviated as PBUH or SAW; in printed matter, a small calligraphic rendition is commonly used instead of printing the entire phrase.
 
====<!--Please leave the following "anchor" here, as a number of pages link to this section using it (see WP:ANCHOR):-->{{anchor|Islamic depictions of Muhammad}} Islamic depictions ====
{{main|Depictions of Muhammad}}
[[File:Muhammad destroying idols - L'Histoire Merveilleuse en Vers de Mahomet BNF.jpg|thumb|left|Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's ''Hamla-i Haydari'', [[Kashmir]], 1808.]]
In line with the [[Aniconism in Islam|hadith prohibition against creating images of sentient living beings]], which is particularly strictly observed with respect to God and Muhammad, Islamic religious art is focused on the word.<ref name="Plas1987"/><ref name="Esposito2011">{{cite book|author=John L. Esposito|title=What everyone needs to know about Islam|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=2wSVQI3Ya2EC&pg=PA14|year=2011|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-979413-3|pages=14–15|edition=2}}</ref> Muslims generally avoid [[depictions of Muhammad]], and mosques are decorated with calligraphy and Quranic inscriptions or geometrical designs, not images or sculptures.<ref name="Plas1987">{{cite book|editor=Dirk van der Plas|author=Kees Wagtendonk|title=Effigies dei: essays on the history of religions|chapter=Images in Islam|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ops3AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA120|accessdate=1 December 2011|year=1987|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-04-08655-5|pages=119–124}}</ref><ref name="Peters2010">{{cite book|author=F. E. Peters|title=Jesus and Muhammad: Parallel Tracks, Parallel Lives|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=olEi-1LZYYQC&pg=PA159|accessdate=1 December 2011|date=10 November 2010|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-974746-7|pages=159–161}}</ref> Today, the interdiction against images of Muhammad – designed to prevent worship of Muhammad, rather than God – is much more strictly observed in Sunni Islam (85%–90% of Muslims) than among Shias (10%–15%).<ref name="Safi20102010">{{cite book|last=Safi2010|first=|title=2 November 2010|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=s63i21E9dr8C|accessdate=29 December 2011|date=2 November 2010|publisher=HarperCollins|isbn=978-0-06-123135-3|page=32}}</ref> While both Sunnis and Shias have created images of Muhammad in the past,<ref name="Omid"/> Islamic depictions of Muhammad are rare.<ref name="Plas1987"/> They have, until recently{{when|date=January 2012}}, mostly been limited to the private and elite medium of the miniature, and since about 1500 most depictions show Muhammad with his face veiled, or symbolically represent him as a flame.<ref name="Peters2010"/><ref name="Bakker2009"/>
 
The earliest extant depictions come from 13th century [[Anatolian Seljuks|Anatolian Seljuk]] and [[Ilkhanid]] [[Persian miniature]]s, typically in literary genres describing the life and deeds of Muhammad.<ref name="Bakker2009"/><ref name="Gruber2009">{{cite book|author=Christiane Gruber|chapter=Between Logos (Kalima) and Light (Nur): Representations of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad in Islamic Painting|editor=Gulru Necipoglu|title=Muqarnas|url=http://umich.academia.edu/ChristianeGruber/Papers/443477/_Between_Logos_Kalima_and_Light_Nur_Representations_of_the_Prophet_Muhammad_in_Islamic_Painting_|volume=26|year=2009|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-04-17589-1|pages=234–235}}</ref> During the Ilkhanid period, when Persia's Mongol rulers converted to Islam, competing Sunni and Shi'a groups used visual imagery, including images of Muhammad, to promote their particular interpretation of Islam's key events.<ref name="Elverskog2010"/> Influenced by the [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] tradition of representational religious art predating the Mongol elite's conversion, this innovation was unprecedented in the Islamic world, and accompanied by a "broader shift in Islamic artistic culture away from abstraction toward representation" in "mosques, on tapestries, silks, ceramics, and in glass and metalwork" besides books.<ref>{{cite book|author=Johan Elverskog|title=Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=N7_4Gr9Q438C&pg=PA164|year=2010|publisher=University of Pennsylvania Press|isbn=978-0-8122-4237-9|pages=164–169}}</ref> In the Persian lands, this tradition of realistic depictions lasted through the [[Timurid dynasty]] until the [[Safavids]] took power in the early 16th century.<ref name="Elverskog2010"/> The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence.<ref name="Gruber2011">{{cite book|chapter=When Nubuvvat encounters Valayat: Safavid painting of the "Prophet" Mohammad's Mi'raj, c. 1500–50|author=Christiane Gruber|editor=Pedram Khosronejad|title=The Art and Material Culture of Iranian Shi'ism: Iconography and Religious Devotion in Shi'i Islam|url=http://www.academia.edu/1176067/When_Nubuvvat_Encounters_Valayat_Safavid_Paintings_of_the_Prophet_Muhammads_Miraj_ca._1500-50|year=2011|publisher=I. B. Tauris|isbn=978-1-84885-168-9|pages=46–47}}</ref> Concomitantly, some of the unveiled images from earlier periods were defaced.<ref name="Elverskog2010">{{cite book|author=Johan Elverskog|title=Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=N7_4Gr9Q438C&pg=PA167|year=2010|publisher=University of Pennsylvania Press|isbn=978-0-8122-4237-9|page=167}}</ref><ref name="EdwardsBhaumik2008">{{cite book|author1=Elizabeth Edwards|author2=Kaushik Bhaumik|title=Visual sense: a cultural reader|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=bhxPW9B8s1oC&pg=PA344|year=2008|publisher=Berg|isbn=978-1-84520-741-0|page=344}}</ref><ref name="Ruggles2011">{{cite book|author=D. Fairchild Ruggles|title=Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Te5QRi35W5EC&pg=PA56|year=2011|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|isbn=978-1-4051-5401-7|page=56}}</ref> Later images were produced in [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad.<ref name="Omid">{{cite news|last=Safi|first=Omid|authorlink=Omid Safi|date=5 May 2011|url=http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/guestvoices/2010/05/why_islam_does_not_ban_images_of_the_prophet.html|title=Why Islam does (not) ban images of the Prophet|work=[[Washington Post]]|accessdate=27 December 2011}}</ref> Illustrated accounts of the night journey (''mi'raj'') were particularly popular from the Ilkhanid period through the Safavid era.<ref name="GruberColby2010"/> During the 19th century, [[Iran]] saw a boom of printed and illustrated ''mi'raj'' books, with Muhammad's face veiled, aimed in particular at illiterates and children in the manner of [[graphic novels]]. Reproduced through [[lithography]], these were essentially "printed manuscripts".<ref name="GruberColby2010">{{cite book|editor=Christiane J. Gruber and Frederick Stephen Colby|title=The Prophet's ascension: cross-cultural encounters with the Islamic mi'rāj tales|chapter=Persian illustrated lithographed books on the miʻrāj: improving children's Shi'i beliefs in the Qajar period|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=sjLHirJmvPUC&pg=PA252|year=2010|publisher=Indiana University Press|isbn=978-0-253-35361-0|pages=252–254|author=Ali Boozari}}</ref> Today, millions of historical reproductions and modern images are available in some Muslim countries, especially Turkey and Iran, on posters, postcards, and even in coffee-table books, but are unknown in most other parts of the Islamic world, and when encountered by Muslims from other countries, they can cause considerable consternation and offense.<ref name="Omid"/><ref name="Bakker2009">{{cite book|author=Freek L. Bakker|title=The challenge of the silver screen: an analysis of the cinematic portraits of Jesus, Rama, Buddha and Muhammad|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=4KNSp-uEO18C&pg=PA207|accessdate=1 December 2011|date=15 September 2009|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-04-16861-9|pages=207–209}}</ref>
 
===Non-Muslim views===
Non-Muslim views regarding Muhammad have ranged across a large spectrum of responses and beliefs, many of which have changed over time.<ref>Stillman, Norman (1979).</ref><ref name="Oussani">[[s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Mohammed and Mohammedanism|"Mohammed and Mohammedanism"]], [[Catholic Encyclopedia]], 1913</ref>
 
====Historical Western views====
{{see also|Medieval Christian views on Muhammad}}
[[File:Gagarin PropovedMagometGRM.jpg|thumb|right|upright|A 19th-century depiction titled ''"Muhammad preaching"'' (1840–1850) by Russian artist [[Grigory Gagarin]]]]
The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from [[Byzantine]] sources. They indicate that both [[Jews]] and Christians saw Muhammad as a "[[false prophet]]".<ref>Walter Emil Kaegi, Jr., "Initial Byzantine Reactions to the Arab Conquest", ''Church History'', Vol. 38, No. 2 (Jun. 1969), p. 139-149, p. 139-142, quoting from ''Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati'' 86–87</ref> Another Greek source for Muhammad is the 9th-century writer [[Theophanes the Confessor|Theophanes]]. The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer [[John bar Penkaye]].<ref>Philip K. Hitti, ''History of the Arabs'', 10th edition (1970), p.112.</ref>
 
According to [[Hossein Nasr]], earliest European literature often refers to Muhammad unfavorably. A few learned circles of [[Middle Ages]] Europe{{spaced ndash}}primarily Latin-literate scholars{{spaced ndash}}had access to fairly extensive biographical material about Muhammad. They interpreted that information through a Christian religious filter that viewed Muhammad as a person who seduced the Saracens into his submission under a religious guise.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> Popular European literature of the time portrayed Muhammad as though he were worshipped by Muslims in the manner of an idol or a heathen god.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/>
 
In later traditions, Muhammad came to be seen as a schismatic: [[Brunetto Latini]]'s 13th century ''Li livres dou tresor'' represents him as a former monk and cardinal,<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> and [[Dante Alighieri|Dante's]] ''[[Divine Comedy]]'' ([[Inferno (Dante)|Inferno]], Canto 28), written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad, together with Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again."<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> Cultural critic and author [[Edward Said]] wrote in ''[[Orientalism (book)|Orientalism]]'' regarding Dante's depiction of Muhammad:
<blockquote>Empirical data about the Orient...count for very little; ... What ... Dante tried to do in the ''[[Inferno (Dante)|Inferno]]'', is ... to characterize the Orient as alien and to incorporate it schematically on a theatrical stage whose audience, manager, and actors are ... only for Europe. Hence the vacillation between the familiar and the alien; {{as written|Mohammed}} is always the imposter (familiar, because he pretends to be like the Jesus we know) and always the Oriental (alien, because although he is in some ways "like" Jesus, he is after all not like him).<ref>{{cite book |author=Said, Edward W |title=Orientalism |publisher=Penguin |year=2003 |isbn=9780141187426 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=zvJ3YwOkZAYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=orientalism&cd=3#v=onepage&q |page=68}}</ref></blockquote>
 
However, [[Ibn Warraq]] has challenged Said's assessment of Dante's work as seriously flawed, writing: "Said does not come across as a careful reader of Dante and his masterpiece, ''The Divine Comedy''". Warraq argues first that Said is oblivious to the [[allegorical]] content of ''The Divine Comedy''; second, that Said ignores the historical context of Dante's work (i.e., Dante and some of his contemporaries believed that Muhammad was a schismatic Christian who intended to usurp the Pope and was thus a heretic); and third that Said misinterprets Dante's placing of three notable Muslims ([[Avicenna]] and [[Averroes]] and [[Saladin]]) in the outer circle of hell: "these illustrious Muslims were included precisely because of Dante's reverence for all that was best in the non-Christian world, and their exclusion from salvation, inevitable under Christian doctrine, saddened him and put a great strain on his mind".<ref>{{cite book|last=Warraq|first=Ibn|title=Defending the West: A Critique of Edward Said's Orientalism|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=M8o6UZ37ppUC&pg=PA27|year=2007|publisher=Prometheus|location=New York|isbn=9781615920204|page=27}}</ref>
 
After the [[Protestant Reformation|Reformation]], Muhammad was often portrayed in a similar way.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref name = "Lewis 2002 45">Lewis (2002)</ref> [[Guillaume Postel]] was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> Boulainvilliers described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> [[Gottfried Leibniz]] praised Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion".<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/> [[Thomas Carlyle]] in his book ''[[On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History|Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History]]'' (1840) describes Muhammed as "[a] silent great soul; [...] one of those who cannot ''but'' be in earnest".<ref>{{cite book|first=Thomas|last=Carlyle|year=1841|title=On heroes, hero worship and the heroic in history|page=87|publisher=James Fraser|place=London}}</ref>
 
According to [[William Montgomery Watt]] and Richard Bell, recent writers have generally dismissed the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad "was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith"<ref>Watt, Bell (1995) p. 18</ref> and that Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause when there seemed to be no rational basis for hope shows his sincerity.<ref>Watt (1974), p. 232</ref> Watt says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: In contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken his own subconscious for divine revelation.<ref>Watt (1974), p. 17</ref> Watt and [[Bernard Lewis]] argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand the development of Islam.<ref>Watt, ''The Cambridge history of Islam'', p. 37</ref><ref>Lewis (1993), p. 45.</ref> [[Alford T. Welch]] holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.<ref name = "EoI-Muhammad" />
 
====Other religious views====
{{see also|Judaism's views on Muhammad}}
* [[Bahá'í Faith|Bahá'ís]] venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "[[Manifestation of God|Manifestations of God]]", but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of [[Bahá'u'lláh]], the founder of the Bahai faith.<ref>{{cite book |last = Smith |first = P. |year = 1999 |title = A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith |publisher = Oneworld Publications |location = Oxford, UK |isbn = 1-85168-184-1 |page = 251 }}</ref>
* [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]] neither regards Muhammad as a prophet nor accepts the Quran as a book of scripture. However, it does respect Muhammad as one who taught moral truths which can enlighten nations and bring a higher level of understanding to individuals.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lds.org/ensign/2000/08/a-latter-day-saint-perspective-on-muhammad |title=A Latter-day Saint Perspective on Muhammad |accessdate=28 December 2013 |author=James A. Toronto |date=August 2000 |publisher=Ensign}}</ref>
 
===Criticism===
{{main|Criticism of Muhammad}}
Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century. He has been attacked by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching [[monotheism]], as well as for [[Muhammad's wives|his multiple marriages]], possession of slaves and [[Military career of Muhammad|military expeditions]] across the Middle East.
 
== Glej tudi ==
{{portal|Biography|Islam|Middle East}}
{{div col|cols=3}}
* [[Achtiname of Muhammad]]
* [[Criteria of True Prophet]]
* [[Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad]]
* [[Clergy]]
* [[Diplomatic career of Muhammad]]
* [[Glossary of Islam]]
* [[Islamic economics in the world]]
* [[Islamic philosophy]]
* [[List of founders of religious traditions]]
* [[List of films about Muhammad]]
* ''[[Mohammad, Messenger of God]]'' (also known as ''The Message'')
* [[Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources]]
* ''[[Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet]]'' (documentary)
* [[Muhammad in Islam]]
* [[Paraclete#Paraclete in Islam|Paraclete in Islam]]
* [[Relics of Muhammad]]
* [[Early social changes under Islam]]
* [[Sharia]]
{{div col end}}
 
== Notes ==
{{reflist|3|group="n"}}
 
== References ==
{{reflist|<!--too narrow: 20em-->3}}
 
== Bibliografija ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite journal|journal = [[signs (journal)|Signs]]|author = Ahmed, Leila|title = Women and the Advent of Islam|volume = 11|date = Summer 1986|pages = 665–91|doi = 10.1086/494271|issue = 4}}
* {{cite book | author = [[Muhammad Mohar Ali|Ali, Muhammad Mohar]] | year = 1997 | title = The Biography of the Prophet and the Orientalists | publisher = King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an | isbn = 9960-770-68-0 |url = http://www.islamhouse.com/p/51772}}
* {{cite journal|journal = [[Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art]]|author = Wijdan, Ali|title = From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art|volume = |location=Utrecht, The Netherlands eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen.| date = 23–28 August 1999|url= http://www2.let.uu.nl/Solis/anpt/ejos/pdf4/07Ali.pdf |pages = 1–24|doi =|issue = 7}}{{dead link|date=September 2012}} {{dead link|date=June 2010}}
* {{cite book | last=Armstrong| first= Karen| authorlink = Karen Armstrong| year = 1992 | title = [[Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet]] | publisher = Harpercollins | isbn = 0-06-250886-5 |url = }}
* {{cite book | last=Awde | first=Nicholas| title= Women in Islam: An Anthology from the Quran and Hadith| publisher=Routledge | year=2000 | isbn=0-7007-1012-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Ballard | first=Harold Wayne |coauthors=Donald N. Penny, W. Glenn Jonas | title= A Journey of Faith: An Introduction to Christianity | publisher=Mercer University Press | year=2002 | isbn=0-86554-746-7}}
* {{cite book | last=Barlas | first=Asma |authorlink=Asma Barlas | title= Believing Women in Islam | publisher=University of Texas Press | year=2002 | isbn=0-292-70904-8}}
* {{cite book | last=Bogle | first=Emory C. | authorlink=Emory C. Bogle | title= Islam: Origin and Belief | publisher=Texas University Press | year=1998 | isbn=0-292-70862-9}}
* {{cite book | last=Brown | first=Daniel | title=A New Introduction to Islam | publisher=Blackwell Publishing Professional | year=2003 | isbn=978-0-631-21604-9}}
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* {{cite book | last=Ernst | first=Carl | authorlink=Carl Ernst | year = 2004 | title = Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World | publisher = University of North Carolina Press | isbn = 0-8078-5577-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Esposito | first=John | authorlink=John Esposito | year=1998 | title=Islam: The Straight Path | publisher=Oxford University Press | isbn=0-19-511233-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Esposito | first=John | year=1999 | title=The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality? | publisher=Oxford University Press | isbn=0-19-513076-6}}
* {{cite book | last=Esposito | first=John | year=2002 | title=What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam | publisher=Oxford University Press | isbn=0-19-515713-3}}
* {{cite book | last=Farah | first=Caesar | authorlink=Caesar E. Farah | title=[[Islam: Beliefs and Observances]] | publisher=Barron's Educational Series | year=1994 | edition=5th | isbn=978-0-8120-1853-0}}
* {{cite book | last=Glubb | first=John Bagot | authorlink=John Bagot Glubb | title=The Life and Times of Muhammad | publisher=Hodder & Stoughton | year=1970 (reprint 2002) | isbn=0-8154-1176-6}}
* {{cite book | last=Goldman | first=Elizabeth | authorlink=Elizabeth Goldman | title=Believers: spiritual leaders of the world | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1995 | isbn=0-19-508240-0}}
* {{cite book | last=Goldman| first=Ann |coauthors=Richard Hain, Stephen Liben | title= Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children| publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2006 | isbn=0-19-852653-9}}
* {{cite book | last=Haaren| first=John Henry |coauthors=Addison B. Poland| title=Famous Men of the Middle Ages| publisher=University Publishing Company | year=1904 | isbn=1-882514-05-X}}
* Al-Hibri, Azizah Y. (2003). "An Islamic Perspective on Domestic Violence". ''27 Fordham International Law Journal'' 195.
* {{cite book | last=Holt | first=P. M. | authorlink=P. M. Holt | coauthors=Ann K. S. Lambton, [[Bernard Lewis]] | title=The Cambridge History of Islam (Paperback) | year=1977 | publisher=Cambridge University Press | isbn=978-0-521-29135-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Hourani | first=Albert | authorlink=Albert Hourani | coauthor=[[Malise Ruthven|Ruthven, Malise]] | title=A History of the Arab Peoples | year=2003 | publisher=Belknap Press; Revised edition | isbn=978-0-674-01017-8}}
* {{cite book | last=ibn Isa |first=Muhammad (Imam Tirmidhi) | authorlink=Imam Tirmidhi | title=Syama'il Muhammadiyah: KeanggunanMu Ya Rasulullah | year=2011 | publisher=PTS Islamika Sdn. Bhd. | location=Malaysia | isbn=978-967-3-66064-3 | page=388 | language=Arabic with Malay translation | format=Hardcover}}
* {{cite book | last=Ishaq | first=Ibn | authorlink=Ibn Ishaq | coauthor=[[Alfred Guillaume|Guillaume, Alfred]], ed. | title=The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2002 | isbn=978-0-19-636033-1}}
* {{cite book | last=Jacobs | first=Louis| authorlink=Louis Jacobs|title=The Jewish Religion: A Companion | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1995 | isbn=0-19-826463-1}}
* {{cite book | last=Kelsay | first=John| authorlink=John Kelsay|title=Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics | publisher=Westminster John Knox Press | year=1993 | isbn=0-664-25302-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Khan | first=Majid Ali | authorlink=Majid Ali Khan | title=Muhammad The Final Messenger | publisher=Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India) | year=1998 | isbn=81-85738-25-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Kochler | first=Hans | authorlink=Hans Köchler | title=Concept of Monotheism in Islam & Christianity | publisher=I.P.O. | year=1982 | isbn=3-7003-0339-4}}
* {{cite book | last = Lapidus| first = Ira | title = A History of Islamic Societies | publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 2002 | edition = 2nd | isbn = 978-0-521-77933-3}}
* {{cite book | last=Larsson| first=Göran | title= Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus| publisher=Brill Academic Publishers | year=2003 | isbn=90-04-12740-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Lewis | first=Bernard | authorlink=Bernard Lewis | year=1993, 2002 | title=[[The Arabs in History]] | publisher=Oxford University Press | isbn=0-19-280310-7}}
* {{cite book | last=Lewis | first=Bernard | authorlink=Bernard Lewis | title=[[Race and Slavery in the Middle East|Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry]] | publisher=Oxford University Press, USA | edition=Reprint | year=1992 | isbn=978-0-19-505326-5}}
* {{cite news | last=Lewis | first=Bernard | title=Islamic Revolution |date=21 January 1998 | publisher=The New York Review of Books | url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1988/jan/21/islamic-revolution/}}
* {{cite book | last=Lings | first=Martin | authorlink=Martin Lings | title=[[Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources]] | publisher=Islamic Texts Society.| year=1983 | isbn=978-0-946621-33-0}} US edn. by Inner Traditions International, Ltd.
* {{cite book | last = Madelung | first = Wilferd | authorlink = Wilferd Madelung | title = [[The Succession to Muhammad|The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate]] | publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 1997 | isbn = 0-521-64696-0}}
* {{cite book | last=Momen| first=Moojan | authorlink=Moojan Momen | title=An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism | publisher=Yale University Press| year=1985 | isbn=0-300-03531-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Neusner| first=Jacob | title=God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions | publisher=Georgetown University Press| year=2003 | isbn=0-87840-910-6}}
* {{cite book | last=Nigosian | first=S. A. | authorlink=S. A. Nigosian | title= Islam:Its History, Teaching, and Practices | publisher=Indiana University Press | year=2004 | isbn=0-253-21627-3}}
* {{cite book | last=Ordoni | first=Abu Muhammad |coauthors=Muhammad Kazim Qazwini | title=[[Fatima the Gracious]] |publisher=Ansariyan Publications |year=1992| isbn=B000BWQ7N6}}
* {{cite book | last=Peters | first=Francis Edward | authorlink=F. E. Peters | year=2003 | title=Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians| publisher=Princeton University Press | isbn=0-691-11553-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Peters | first=Francis Edward | year=2003b | title=The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition| publisher=Princeton University Press | id=ASIN: B0012385Z6 | isbn=0-691-11461-7}}
* {{cite book | last=Peters | first=Francis Edward | authorlink=F. E. Peters | year=1994 | title=Muhammad and the Origins of Islam| publisher=SUNY Press | isbn=0-7914-1876-6}}
* {{cite journal|journal = [[International Journal of Middle East Studies]]|author = Peters, F. E.|title = [[The Quest of the Historical Muhammad (Peters)|The Quest of the Historical Muhammad]]|volume = 23|number = |year = 1991|pages = 291–315|doi =10.1017/S0020743800056312|issue = 3 }}
* {{cite book | last=Peterson | first=Daniel | authorlink=Daniel C. Peterson | year=2007 | title=Muhammad, Prophet of God| publisher=Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company | isbn=0-8028-0754-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Rahman | first=Fazlur | authorlink=Fazlur Rahman | year=1979 | title= Islam | publisher= University of Chicago Press | isbn=0-226-70281-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Ramadan | first=Tariq | authorlink=Tariq Ramadan | year=2007 | title= In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad | publisher=Oxford University Press | isbn=0-19-530880-8}}
* {{cite book | last = Razwi | first = Ali Asgher | title =A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims | publisher = World Federation of K S I Muslim Communities Islamic Centre | year = 1997 | isbn = 0-9509879-1-3}}
* {{cite book | last=Reeves | first=Minou | authorlink=Minou Reeves | title=Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making | year=2003 | publisher=NYU Press | isbn=978-0-8147-7564-6}}
* {{cite book | last=Robinson | first=David | title=Muslim Societies in African History | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=2004 | isbn=0-521-82627-6}}
* {{cite book | author=[[Maxime Rodinson|Rodinson, Maxime]] | title=Muhammad: Prophet of Islam | publisher=Tauris Parke Paperbacks | year=2002 | isbn=1-86064-827-4}}
* {{cite book | last=Rue | first=Loyal | authorlink=Loyal Rue | title=Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological | publisher=Rutgers | year=2005 | isbn=0-8135-3955-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Serin | first=Muhittin | title= Hattat Aziz Efendi | publisher=Istanbul | year=1998 | isbn=975-7663-03-4, OCLC 51718704}}
* {{cite book | last=Sikand |first=Yoginder |title=Muslims in India since 1947: Islamic perspectives on inter-faith relations |publisher=RoutledgeCurzon |location=London |year=2004 |isbn=0-415-31486-0}}
* {{cite book | last = Tabatabae | first = Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn | authorlink = Allameh Tabatabaei | title = [[Tafsir al-Mizan|AL-MIZAN:AN EXEGESIS OF THE QUR'AN]], translation by S. Saeed Rizvi| publisher = WOFIS| isbn =964-6521-14-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Teed | first=Peter | title= A Dictionary of Twentieth Century History | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1992 | isbn=0-19-211676-2}}
* {{cite book | last=Turner | first=Colin | title= Islam: The Basics | publisher=Routledge | year=2005 | isbn=0-415-34106-X}}
* {{cite book | last=Watt | first=W. Montgomery | authorlink=William Montgomery Watt | title=Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1961 | isbn=0-19-881078-4}} (New edition 1974)
* {{cite book | last=Watt | first=W. Montgomery | title=[[Muhammad at Medina (book)|Muhammad at Medina]] | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1956 | isbn=0-19-577307-1}}
* {{cite book | last=Watt | first=W. Montgomery| title=[[Muhammad at Mecca (book)|Muhammad at Mecca]] | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1953 | id=ASIN: B000IUA52A | isbn=0-19-577277-6}}
* {{cite journal |last1 = Weil |first1 = Gustav |authorlink1= Gustav Weil |last2 = Sanders |first2 = Frank K. |last3 = Dunning |first3 = Harry W. | year = 1895 |title = An Introduction to the Quran |journal = The Biblical World |publisher = The University of Chicago Press |volume = 5 |issue = 3 |pages = 181–191 |jstor = 3135387 |doi = 10.1086/471621}}
* {{cite book |editor1-first=Jonathan E. |editor1-last=Brockopp |title=The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad |url=http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/middle-east-history/cambridge-companion-muhammad |series=Cambridge Companions to Religion |year=2010 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-71372-6}}
* {{cite journal |last1 = Weil |first1 = Gustav |authorlink1= Gustav Weil |year = 1895 |title = An Introduction to the Quran II |journal = The Biblical World |publisher = The University of Chicago Press |volume = 5 |issue = 4 |pages = 273–286 | jstor = 3135160 |doi = 10.1086/471639}}
{{refend}}
 
===Encyclopedias===
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | editor=William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian | encyclopedia=Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History | publisher=Berkshire Publishing Group | year=2005 | isbn=978-0-9743091-0-1}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | editor=Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll | encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World | publisher=MacMillan Reference Books | year=2003 | isbn=978-0-02-865603-8}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | editor=P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, [[Clifford Edmund Bosworth|C. E. Bosworth]], E. van Donzel, [[Wolfhart Heinrichs|W. P. Heinrichs]] | encyclopedia=[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]] Online | publisher=Brill Academic Publishers | issn=1573-3912}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | editor=Lindsay Jones | encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Religion | publisher=MacMillan Reference Books | edition=2nd | year=2005 | isbn=978-0-02-865733-2}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | editor=Jane Dammen McAuliffe | encyclopedia=[[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]] | publisher=Brill Academic Publishers | year=2005 | isbn=978-90-04-12356-4}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of World History | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1998 | isbn=0-19-860223-5}}
* {{cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia=The New Encyclopædia Britannica | publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated | edition=Rev | year=2005 | isbn=978-1-59339-236-9}}
{{refend}}
 
== Further reading ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book | author=[[Tor Andrae|Andrae, Tor]] | title=Mohammed: The Man and His Faith | publisher=Dover | year=2000 | isbn=0-486-41136-2}}
* {{cite book | author=Berg, Herbert (ed) |authorlink=Herbert Berg (religion) | title=Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins | publisher=E. J. Brill | year=2003 | isbn=90-04-12602-3}}
* {{cite book | author=[[Michael Cook (historian)|Cook, Michael]] | title=Muhammad | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1983 | isbn=0-19-287605-8}}
* {{cite book | author=[[Muhammad Hamidullah|Hamidullah, Muhammad]] | title=The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam | publisher=(s.n.)(Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute) | year=1998 | isbn=969-8413-00-6}}
* {{cite book |author=[[Harald Motzki|Motzki, Harald]], ed. | title=The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources (Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32) | publisher=Brill | year=2000 |isbn=90-04-11513-7}}
* Musa, A. Y. ''Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam'', New York: Palgrave, 2008
* {{cite book | author=[[Uri Rubin|Rubin, Uri]] | title=The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis) | publisher=Darwin Press | year=1995 | isbn=0-87850-110-X}}
* {{cite book | author=[[Annemarie Schimmel|Schimmel, Annemarie]] | title=And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety | publisher=The University of North Carolina Press | year=1985 | isbn=0-8078-4128-5}}
* {{cite book | author=[[Norman Stillman|Stillman, Norman]] | year=1975 | title=The Jews of Arab Lands: a History and Source Book | publisher=Jewish Publication Society of America | isbn=0-8276-0198-0}}
* {{cite book |last = Spencer |first = Robert |year = 2006 |title = [[The Truth About Muhammad]] |publisher = Regnery Publishing, USA |isbn = 978-1-59698-028-0}}
{{refend}}
 
== External links ==
{{Sister project links|Muhammad}}
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n79-130881}}
 
===Other biographies===
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105853/Muhammad Muhammad], article on ''Encyclopædia Britannica Online''
* [http://www.pbs.org/muhammad Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — PBS Site]
* [http://www.upf.tv/upf06/Projects/MuhammadDocumentary/tabid/175/Default.aspx Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — UPF (Producer's Site)]{{dead link|date=September 2012}}
 
{{Prophets in the Qur'an}}
{{Qur'anic people}}
{{Muhammad's ancestors}}
{{Islam topics}}
{{Social and political philosophy}}
 
{{good article}}
{{Authority control|VIAF=97245226|LCCN=n/79/130881}}
 
{{Persondata <!--Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]]-->
|NAME = Muhammad
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES = محمد (Arabic)
|SHORT DESCRIPTION = Prophet of Islam
|DATE OF BIRTH = c. 570
|PLACE OF BIRTH = Meka
|DATE OF DEATH = 8. junija 632
|PLACE OF DEATH = Medina
}}
[[Kategorija:Rojeni leta 570]]
[[Kategorija:Umrli leta 632]]
[[Kategorija:Arabci]]
[[Kategorija:Bahajstvo]]
[[Kategorija:Mohamed|*]
[[Category:Islam]]
[[Category:Medina]]
[[Category:Meka]]
[[Category:Preroki]]
 
]
{{Link FA|ar}}
{{Link FA|fa}}
{{Link FA|ur}}
{{Link GA|fi}}
{{Link GA|simple}}
{{Link FA|dv}}
{{Link GA|tt}}
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