Pomoč:IPA za angleščino

(Preusmerjeno s strani Pomoč:IPA/Angleščina)

V Wikipediji je izgovorjava angleških besed posredovana s pomočjo Mednarodne fonetične abecede (IPA). (Če vaš spletno brskalnik nepravilno prikazuje IPA simbole, glejte povezave na dnu te strani.)

Ključ uredi

Opomba: IPA naglasno znamenje (ˈ) se nahaja pred zlogom, ki vsebuje naglas, v nasprotju z označevanjem naglasov v nekaterih slovarjih izdanih v ZDA.


(Besede zapisane z MAJHNIMI VELIKIMI ČRKAMI so standardni leksikalen nabor angleških besed.)

IPA Primeri
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j[2] yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[3]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[4]
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige[5]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
IPA »krepki« samoglasniki ... ki jim sledi R[7][8]
ɑː PALM, father, bra ɑr START, bard, barn, snarl, star (tudi /ɑːr./)
ɒ LOT, pod, John[9] ɒr moral, forage
æ TRAP, pad, shall, ban [10] ær barrow, marry[11]
PRICE, ride, file, fine, pie[12] aɪər Ireland, sapphire (/aɪr./)[8]
MOUTH, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[8]
ɛ DRESS, bed, fell, men[13] ɛr error, merry[13]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[14][8]
ɪ KIT, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
FLEECE, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)[15]
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[16] ɔr NORTH, born, war, Laura (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[8]
GOAT, code, foal, bone, go[17] ɔər FORCE, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[18]
ʊ FOOT, good, full, woman ʊr courier
GOOSE, food, fool, soon, chew, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[19]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue, you[20] jʊər cure
ʌ STRUT, mud, dull, gun[21] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[22]
»visoki« samoglasniki
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər LETTER, perceive (tudi /ɚ/)[22]
ɨ roses, emission[23] (ali ɪ ali ə) ən button
ɵ omission[24] (ali ali ə) əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[25] (ali ʊ ali ə) əl bottle
i HAPPY, serious[26] (ali ɪ ali i(ː)) ᵊ, ⁱ (samoglasnik je pogosto izpuščen: nasturtium)
Naglas Razzlogovanje
IPA Zgledi IPA Zgledi
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[27]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[28]
. hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/
Mikey /ˈmaɪki/, Myki /ˈmaɪ.kiː/[29]

Glej tudi uredi

  • Če vaš brskalnik ne prikazuje IPA simbolov, morate verjetno instalirati font, ki vsebzuje IPA. Prosto dostopne IPA fonte vključuje Gentium in Charis SIL (popolnejši); monospaced font je Everson Mono, ki je popoln.

Opombe uredi

  1. If the two characters ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨ ⟩ do not match and if the first looks like a ⟨γ⟩, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. The IPA value of the letter ⟨j⟩ is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words, such as hallelujah and Jägermeister.
  3. Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  4. The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
  5. A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  6. In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. In ugh, however, it is often replaced by /ɡ/ (a spelling pronunciation), and in Chanukah by /h/
  7. In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are distinguished, the long vowels are sometimes transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 8,3 8,4 Note that many speakers distinguish monosyllabic triphthongs with R and disyllabic realizations: hour /ˈaʊər/ from plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ from higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ from employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ from player /ˈpleɪ.ər/.
  9. /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
  10. In some regions (including California), what would normally be [æŋ] is pronounced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], so that the "a" in "rang" is closer to the "ai" in "rain" than the "a" in "rag"
  11. Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
  12. Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[navedi vir] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
  13. 13,0 13,1 Transcribed as /e/ by many dictionaries.[1]
  14. Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.[2]
  15. Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
  16. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  17. Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  18. /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  19. /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  20. In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  21. This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
  22. 22,0 22,1 In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  23. Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ɪ[3], and Merriam–Webster uses ⟨ə̇⟩.
  24. Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  25. Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ʊ[4].
  26. Pronounced [i(ː)] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to ⟨i⟩.
  27. It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  28. Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  29. Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).

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